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One of the strangest of all moral phenomena in the present day, i« 
perhaps, presented m the comparatively trifling, nay, almost imper;;p- 

Sn! '^" '"P""'"*'" and teachings of ages have had in the enactments and individual efforts of modern nations with re- 

^rJir" 't'! "P""^"* '"''J^'^ °^ ^^«'^^' Strange also is the fact, 
that although .he pnnc.ple of self-preservation, even in itself, should na- 
turally .note commumues, as well as individuals, to endeavour to profit 
by and to act upon, teachings, always plentifully attainable, if duly sought, 

.'nla'r r"V ''"'"^'"^"^^ and apathy, more es cciallyTs ble 
.n arge c., have m.asma and plague, malaria and consumption, been 
perm.tted to generate, and death to run riot, amongst those, who, but for 
he ^rele^ness and cupidity of their fellow-men, might ha^ att;ined Z 
age almost reachmg that of the patriarchs of old. Such procedure 
must not only be highly condemnable in the eyes of ZZZi 
neces^nly s.nful in the sight of God. For, as is his won^he aH 
mercfu, and all-wise Creator has not leA us without guidance in a 
ma«er, next to the due care and health of our souls, it is Is 
necessary for us to know. Thus, it never has been, as indeed it nrve 
can be, questioned, that the most ancient and, at L same time ml 

eg.slat.on of Moses son of Am..m-contains the wisest and most valu! 
able, recommendations, and enactments on the subject of health 
wh,ch, though thousands of years have elapsed since their .nnn.;-'!!"' 
ao yei remain, like " all which proceedeth out of the mouth of theEtem'al? 


just as valuable and just as wise as when first revealed for the edifica- 
tion of the Hebrew people, and are, therefore, now, as then, fully worthy 
our most attentive and reverent consideration. 

Among the Ilebrctvs, who, under God, have |»r*wrved these enact- 
ments to the present day, it has ever been a g<fl(Ien maxim, *' there are 
no riches can compare with health ;"• and this principle is equally de- 
veloped in their Post Biblical, as well as in their Biblical, jurisprudence, 
as it will be our endeavour to show in the following pages. The 
maxim appears also to have been in no small d«jgree appreciated and 
acted upon by the ancient heathen nations, for, as we all know, their 
legislators not only passed laws calculated to secure an athletic, healthy 
race of men, who would best serve their respective states, but also for 
the healthfulness of these states themselves ; and their orators and poets, 
as is also well-known, frequently called the attention of the people to' 
the subject, in order that, being reminded in the words of Virgil, 

Noctea atque dies patet atri jai;ua Ditiei, 

Seel revocare gradom, soperasque evadero ad auras. 

Hoc opus, hie labor eatf 

they might thereby accord an universal and cheerful obedience to the 
laws. And even with respect to Christian nations, it is a question which, 
we think, cannot be so immediately decided in the aflBrmative, whether^ 
in the first century of Christianity, they were less appreciative than their 
descendants are, in the nineteenth, of the truth conveyed in the saying 
of the old English moralists, that « there is but one way of coming into 
the world, but a thousand to go out of it," or whether they could 
parallel the atrocities which are daily revealed to us with reference to 
the impurity and adulteration of food, the state of city grave-yards, the 
noxious manufacturing processes carried on in densely populated 
neighbourhoods, and a thousand other evils calculatetl to undermine the 
public health. These, however, are questions we do not attempt to de- 
cide, but, leaving them for the consideration of others more competent to 
do so, we proceed to examine that branch of the general topic which 
we have selected as our own, and will endeavour to show what are the 
ideas and practice of that people to whom a code of sanatory laws was 
first revealed. 

But it is proper to premise, that the Sanatory Institutions of the 
Hebrews are not to be looked for in the Bible only, though the grand 
principles, upon which they are based, have undoubtedly been borrowed 

• D>j<i9n ^^a)^ • nwriaa ivy ytt 

oxlfnTJJtl''\^'^''l i^^' rendered bjDavideOB. "Orim PhiW, g,itert«,tlB 
w^i twi a ti'^-' *" "-"^"'^ fr""* "»«"«• to '»« upper region^ thi« is * 







bjMlie« &•«, a«i ci«dited by them to. the racred volume. It U to that 
v^repertor, of the nauonal traditioos, that wcU-known. but little under- 

turn wouW M.e find ai.d correctly estimate the multilarioua, important, 
a^tughly .ntereat-ng sanatory cunBtitutions of a peo,>le who honoured 
theae con.t,tut.on8 with a most scrupulous observance, not merely be- 
ca«^ they regarded then, aa mere matters of expediency, utility, or pro - 
«U, but as the strict, unavoidable, and uncompromising e.uiromenta of 
har heaven-born religion. The pains and penalties Llow"; de^c 

Z. Z T^?rr" .T' "T """"""^'"^ ^^^" '"^ excision-al«o tended, 
both m abhcal and Po,t Kblical times, to secure from U.e Hebrews a 
scrupulous observance of their sanatory laws. We are well aware, that 
.o«e lew, wruing in an unfriendly spirit of the book in which they are 
c^tamed, have condemned them as overloading men with useless 
ceremon.e*, which enter into every hour of hi. existence and make him 
the mere areature of ablutions and precautions. But it is very evident. 
ha this objection must bo pronounced quite futile, until it can be shown 
that a careful and strict attention to the promotion of health is at all con- 
de«»BabIe pernicious or unwise. By another class a further objection has 
been made to them, that, although their tendency may be good, yet is 
the mmuteness of detail employed in the books of Hebrew jurisprudence 
highly objecuonablo, and not to be tolerated in the present refined state 
oi socety. ^t here it is also evident, that such an objection is utterly 
groundle^, and could only be adduced but for a sinister purpose. For 
.f they become objectionable and intolerable on this account, then 
e^lly objectionable and intolerable must we pronounce every medical 
book, tract, or treatise, from the days of Galen downwards ; since it 
needs no very extensive knowledge of both classes of authors to 
d« that the former are clearly and indisputably more measured 
m their rnodus scriiendi than the latter ; notwithstanding which but 
tew would recommend the suppression of valuable medical trea- 
f^es on this account. The truth is, that, equally with any modern 
casmstic or scentific writers, the Jewish Doctors or Rabbis wrote for 
.nte Ihgent considerate, truth-seeking men. They wrote neither for 
children, for fools, nor for blind zealots. And when they entered into 
de tads de«,gned to promote the bodily, and consequently the mental, health 
ofthe.r people, they knew that they addressed men who would only 
consider the.nselves " a wise and discerning nation " accordingly as they 
respected the "statutes and judgments so righteous," upon which their 
•eachers ampI.Ced~men, who, whatever their faults otherwise, could 
yet duly appreciate recommendations to purity, chastity, and sobrietv. 
anu wuiu not oni, o.tensibIy, but actuaUy and'in reality', act up to them. 


SANATOBT iifsTmmoirB 

— men, whose cheeks would not mantle with the deceitful hues of a false 
modesty whon partirularization of wholesome, "anatory and moral lawe 
were addressed to them in pub'ic, while, in private, they would, with brazen 
brow and unblushing face, outrage everyone of these laws, and yet loudly 
proclaim a refined state of society, as, perhaps, is but too much the case 
in our day. And that the Hebrew Sanatory Institutions, despite their 
minuteness of detail, have proved to the nation neither hurtful to body 
nor baneful to mind, is, we think, evident from various considerations. In 
the first place, although there now flows in the veins of the Hebrews the 
blood of the most ancient nation remaining on earth — the same blood which 
once animated Abraham, Moses, David, and Isaiah, — although the stake 
has destroyed of them its thousands, and the sword its tens of thousands — 
although monarchs and legislators, from the days of Pharaoh downwarda, 
have passed enactments for their extermination, forbidding, as is the case 
even in the present day, their obedience to one of the first laws of 
nature* — although found in every country and clime, amidst the snows 
and ice of a northern, and the burning sun of a southern, latitude, — and 
although, at all periods of their history, subject to a thousand adverse and 
destructive influences, yet do they remain a wondrous living problem, 
the same iindeterioratcd, indestructible race, with the same characteristics 
everywhere traceable among them, with an eye not less bright than 
when it was called to witness the lightnings of Sinai's mount, and with 
a step not less elastic than when it repaired to the Holy Temple which 
God vouchsafed to make the place of His especial residence ; in short, 
with the same favourable, energetic, and high organization among the 
men, and with the same instances of rare attractive beauty among the 
women. Nor do we find them, in consequence of their sanatory regula- 
tions, more subject to diseases, or obnoxious to epidemics of all descriptions, 
but the contrary ; for it is undeniable that the mass of the nation, who arc 
duly observant of their dietary laws, are remarkably free from certain 
classes of diseases, particularly those of the skin and the hypochondriac 
regions ; while, ever since attention has been givn to the statistics of 
epidemics, both in Europe and America, it has been announced as an 
extraordinary fact, especially during the ravages of Asiatic cholera, that 
proportionably, the Jewish community have remained in a remarkable 
degree unscathed under these awful visitations.f 

• In some parts of northern Europe the laws of the State permit only a certain 
number of Jews to marry. 

t During the fatal prevalence of Cholera in London, in 1849, the editor of a leading 
paper thus writes : " It is a singular circumstance, that throughout the late awful 
visitation, so few, if any Jews, died of the Cholera in London, although the rrMjority 
of them reside in districts where it committed great ravages.^' See also Thanksgiving 
Siennon of the Rev. D. A. De Sola, of London, for 15th November, 1849. We 
btlieve thai iiit: duiiienticuiau vasea did noi exceed Iwu, uuu outiot iht:at:, yvnoiiuiiy 

or THK HEBBBW8. f 

These laws, too, have evidenfly not unfavourably affected their moral 
organ.zal.on for, let us search the calendar of crime of every country 
and we shall be led to the conclusion that these same dietary and sanT 
U.ry laws have had the effect of exempting them in a remarkable degree 
from that, to speak technically, plus-animalism, or preponderance of the 
an.mal organs and instincts, which has led in others to the commission of 
he most awfu crimes. In vain we seek their names in the long list of 
those conv.cted of inveterate drunkenness, of midnight plunderingand as- 
8as.s,nat,on, of foeticide, infanticide, of murder, and of other revolting and 
abommable crimes, which one dares not even think of or allude to Of the 
correctness of .his assertion it is easy to adduce evidence, but upon those 
who may feel disposed to doubt it. rests, as we imagine, the burden of 
prool to the contrary. 

It ^vould appear also that these laws have not had the effect of 
.nvestmg them with an inferior mental organization, for the a en reader o history and observer of events, cannot but remain 
astonished at the immense, wondrous, influence they have exercised and 
doeven yet exercise upon the destinies of the world.'-in the present'day, 

gorro/th"/;rnra,^L"::fr J:''^"'^" circumstances, at Brighton, .here he hai 

nro^uc.ions of Z present ^hTc loo U f S n&/'„a''''l'"e°';;,r ^ "^ '''^ 
hisConin-sby, thus writes • " Th^ Snr-„,1„ , '^''''^.'"^l^eroj J-,ngland. Mr. D'lsraeli, in 

unr.valled\-.v^.lizat.onrrosevvhKhnreser"e^^ ThatfairanS 

endom was plunged in darkness. ^' ' ^ ^"J • Xrin^' th ^T\'' ^'^'" ^^'''''' 
It 18 ditficult to distinffuish the follower nf \r,.c»= ,""?'"''**' "'''•"yon centuries, 

everything else, anJn^onJrchs and ^^ers oflircountrT''''''^,'",^-^"''."''*^'*^' «f 
were guided by his suggestions '' .....°""'T 'T'i''^'''''^. ^^^'^e, and 

examined the Hebrew communities of the world • • . ."^ ^^ T'^''^'* ^"^^ 

that the intellectual development was unimpaired " and perceived 

moment, in spite of ccntiiri».<! Tn,l to.,= le 1 • „ . And at this 

mind exerc Js a vastrnteTce o^ Le'Xirs^rFurone"'/:^"'^'"""' '^? ''^^ 
which you still obey ; of the literature whh « I ,Vh v^ T''^ "*" °^ "'^'^ 'aws 

the living Hebrew fn'tellect! Yofnev L^rve aC^t'^iVtir/^ T"^'"' ' ^"' "^ 

l^"'?r u" "^^^'^ '^'^ •''^^■^ ''» ""t greatirpa^t.cina'e '' Mr ir ""TT"^ '" 
length, shews how mighty revolutions are " oMt-i^i i , ^/^^eh then, at 
of Jews," and mentions, Ljewrtrsewh„'''''i''^ developed under the auspices 
excelling in theology, Neand^^ Benarv W.hT- 7'', ^'"^ 
Mendi.abel ; in war,^Soul Ala ;ena -^wS arl 'Ilu£°Tl' '''"'"'■ ^^""'" 

creative minds, to who e exq.Ste in Zl ?, '^1.'"°'^^ '"' "'/''''' '^^ '^''^ ^^«at 
Rossini, Meverbeerand ^feSi;n'l^^S oTnebre^w 'rTce '' tlt^ZT -^^k- 

Mr. Huut says: " We see the Children of Israel scattered over the face of the 


raofee<fp««iaHyintheo<UDiiier«ialan<i political world, though thcirinfluence 
ami i«por1ance, religiously, ati the ancient, prcjervcd, and living witriuasCB 
of the Sinaic revelation, is by no means to bo underrated. On this sub- 
j«rt» however, it is not our province to dwell here, but we hasten to 
afwure our readers that, in all we have said, we have not sought to 
assert that it is to their Sanatory Institution solely, that the Hebrews 
owe their preservation as a people. Far from this. In common with 
all believers in the Sacred volume, whether Christians or Jews, we wit- 
oeaa the existence and preservation of Abraham's eons, and exclaim " the 
iMnd of the Kternal hatfj done this thing." \ es.we behold in it but the 
ful&lmont of the predictions of their own lawgiver and prophets, the ful- 
filment of fJod's threats and promises to them. Hut in common with 
those believers, wc are also impressed with the conviction that God fre- 
quently permits us to perceive and appreciate the means whereby He 
works out the end He proposes: — that He as frequently prefers simple 
and Batural means for the accomplishment of His behests ; and that il is 
ikerefore quite permissible, after due inquiry to maintain, that the 
Sanatory Institutions of the Hebrews, have, under God, tended in a 
great meas'ure to secure the present preserved and undeteriorated exie- 
tence of the nation. To what extent they have done so it will of course 
be for the reader hereafter to decide. Believing, as we have already 
affirmed, that it is to a very great and important extent, wc think no fur- 
ther introduction or apology necessary, ere we introduce them, as we 
proceed now to do, to these sanatory laws and constitutions themselves. 



The Sanatory Institutions of the Hebrews may be considered as re- 
garding—First, Persons;— Secondly, Places ; and Thirdly, Thinss. Our 
remarks will have reference to them under these three heads; but we 
have considered it advisable to follow, as closely as possible, the order of 

eaith since eighteen centuries, without a country, yet finding a home in all ; scorned 
and trampled upon, yet often the power behind the throne directing the destinies 
of kinf^s ; poor and abject, yet holdins; the golden keys of war and peace in Europe • 
excelling in philosophy and in theology, in music and in art, in war and in stutes- 

rnanship ; despised, yet ever powerful ; counted as aliens, yet, with their gene- 
oiogies of forty eentufies, looking down with scorn ujx)n the aristocracy of Europe, 
which IS but as of yesterday, when compared with their own proud linea-'e. The 
Hebrew people still preserves all its natural characteristics, and stands proud and 
irnperishable before us to-day, the representative of the earliest ages of the world's 

w 1W1 nwnmt/wa. 


Ab «,cfea votome, and, after due attention to Tt« tcachirrp,. *all .mbr 
-uch .llu,tmt.on, afforded both by Christian and Jewish write™, ., „.. 

cubject. And fmx-of the profiibitifm of Nood. 

The nrM law bent calculated to promote manV pbpical, «, w«|l „ 
moral, perfcctmn, ,h contained in the 28th verm, of ,he first chanter oT 
C.ene,,«, and further expounded in the second chapter of thesame book «nd 
-n sub^qucnt portion, of the Sacred Writing.. But we defer our r«^ 
mark, upon th. law, until we reach the «ub«.,„ent legislation of Mo«e. 
the ton In the seventh chapter of Gene^in, we find the diMinction 
ma;l.. between » bea.t. that are clean " and " bea.t. that nr. unelea"" 
Th,. H„bject we also defer for after-notice, and proceed to examine th, 
proh.b.t,on to cat blood, first expre.«ed in the ninth chapter, third a^ 
fourth of the book of in the following Jerms,' Every 
movng that liveth «hall be food for you, even a. the g een he* 
ave I g,ven you a . But fle.h with the life (nefe.h) thereof. uJlZ 
the b o„, .hereof, shall ye not ent." Such is the translation ^nTtter 
P etat.on g.von to this passage by the English authorised version -1 

m cal construction ; and als<. is the interpretation of the^e^t 
majorrty of commentators of all ages and countries. Here it mav Z 
haps beonlyneces^aryto cite those not generally attai:;!™^!.' ^tI 

Itk ' T'll r'^ " t.?. '^^ '': '^^^^< -hich is the blood t'here^; 
remarks, "God here prohibits to them (the tearing off and eatin^^ L 
membersofalivinganimal,andsaith,asitwere to them "sn.^^ u 
fe (nefesh) . ^n tke blood, thou shalt not ea the fl el "» R Ab T" 
Aben E.ra on the same passage says, " The mLnTng of thL w^Ts 
b.s, but the flesh u-ith its Irfe, ^ch^ch is its blood^J^ZZZ^l 

W i ; Th '" rr^'"" "'' ''''^ ^^^^°" ( g Z\^' 
Wnt. Thou Shalt not eat the life with the flesh, for the iffe of III tl 
.S.U blood, &c.'" Don Isaac Abarbanel has the' followL ll 1 l" 
on tins P-sage. he says : " And because rn slaughtering anLatfo "2 
theym,ght acquire cruel habits, God prohibited to tLm Tk ' 

the members of a living animal-a custo'm which i^r^^'ir^^ 
Of cruelty. Therefore saith the text ib«n k", ,nV Z ^ ^'^^' 
a (beth) in ,.... (.enafsho) is u J f^ o. "g ^t- hrfuj" I'" 
m Vtt...3, n.",a (berichbo oobpharashav Ex. Vv. ,9 ) t T^ " 
B«noth, therefore, And the flesh while vet itsl.f. .! f .x' • '^^* 

Wood ye shall not eat of that flesh Snnh I ^?"^^ '' "^ ''' ** 
proper e^po^ion of this palg^^^r' A^^a^rrbt' J^Ilr^^^-- 
before ne proceed, to b.s exposition, Abarbane[ states thos^q^esii:;;:;: 



deems requiring particular notice, and here he seems ironically to ask, 
whether the blood be dependent upon the life, or the life upon the blood t 
" Surely," he exclaims " the exposition of Haramban (i. e. R. Moses ben 
Nachman) which is ' but the flesh with its life which is its blood, <Jt:.,' 
and which opinion makes the life (nefesh) to be identical m\h the blood, 
is a very erroneous one, and not for a moment to be entertained." It is 
with regret that we find ourselves unable to subjoin the exact language of 
Nachmanides, but must reserve our quotation from him, for an appendix. 
It seems, however, from Arbarbancl's own words, that he merely asserts 
what Rashi and Aben Ezra, nay, the sacred penman h' . jelf, seems to 
assert, viz., the vitality of the. blood; and in such case, his opinion doc; 
not deserve censure, since it has met, during the last two centuries, with 
many deeply learned advocates, who, however, njcrely reiterate to a 
great extent, what Jewish exposition and tiadition have maintained cen- 
turies before them.' 

The learned Dr. Townloy in his translation of a portion of the " Moreh 
Nebuchim" (Guide of the Perplexed) of Maimonides, says : — 

" The doctrine of the vitality of the Blood, thus suggested by the Laws 
of Moses, does not appear to have been avowed by Medical Writers 
before A. D. 1628, the time of the celebrated Harvey, the discoverer, 
or the reviver, of the doctrine of the circulation of the blood, who, in his 
writings, maintained the opinion, but was never much followed, till Mr. 
Hunter, Professor of Analomy in London, defended the hypothesis 
with much acuteness and strength of argument in his Treatise on the 
Blood, Inflammation, SfC, London, 1794, ^to. The arguments of 
Hunter were vigorously attacked by Professor Blumenbach, of Gottingen, 
who fancied he had gained a complete victory over the defenders of the 
vitality cf the blood. But his translator. Dr. Elliotson, in the notes he 
has added to the Professor's Institutions of Physiology (^Sect. vi. p. p. 
43, M, London, 1817, 2nd cd. 8w.,) thus sums up what he regards as 
the true state of the question : — ' The great asserter ol the life of the 

* Hence the groundkssnpss of the following remarks in W(K)(rs Mosaic History. 
It would appear that Mr. Wood had never studied the Talmud, or read Jewish 
commentators. We will not dwell here on the incongruity of his assertion that 
Paul (and therefore no doubt the Hebrews of that day) knew well and taught thia 
doctrine, and yet, that (a somewhat gratuitous assumption we conceive) " it was 
8600 years before it arrested the attention of any philosopher." Mr. Wood, perhaps, 
forgot that even before Paul, and long before Harvey or John Hunter, tliere were 
philosophers among the Jews who did direct attention to it. And yet Mr. Wood 
continues: "This is more surprising, as the nations in whicli ])hilosopliy flouri.shcd, 
were those which especially enjoyed tlie divine oracl'.s in tlieir resp^'^tive languages." 
It is ytt more surprifing that Mr. Wood at " one fell swo<ip " taketh from CoBsar 
'what belongeth to CiBsar and by tins ipse facto ussertio;i shows liis utter want of 
information on the subject. We repeat, it would appear that Jewish tradition and 
commentary, like other small matters, had not "oubled mucli tlie, in other rAspectSL 
learued Mr. Wood. This, bowever, ia not surprising. 



lilood is Mr. Ilimter: nm] ih 

IIiHiter, would eniitle it to li 

e mere adoption of the opinion by Mr 

most ardent and inileiirndcnt love of 

lie uimost respect from mo, who find the 



i:on;iis in 




ood from puir.'raciion w 
er death fn 

frnlh, and the een 
of h 

wine stamp of 

)m arserne, electrieily, an, 
oa^iilate when mixed with i>ile, I ,, 
dependent of vitality. Bnt its inal.Ml 

|>as^u-e of his works. The freedom of the 
iili^ (•|^eulatinL^ and its inability to roa^nlate 

to c 

, In! Sim 


ninLS iiiny, like its inability 


plienomena, in- 

angcr or a blow on t 


le stom 

ily to coairiilate after death fr 


icir usual stillne: 

haps Its dinlitli^iled eoatrulaiion bv t: 
putridity w 

u-li, whieh deprive the muscles likewise of 
Illation by means of heat, per- 

ils accelerated coa' 

10 ad 

len drawn from 


c OiTiZs, fn 

oil, tiian from vo 

sua I 



e., more readily when 

mixture of opium ; its earlier 
young, persons ; its freezing 

whicli ma 


solid organised 

comin": the 

quires various intern 

H- supposed to havecxhauMed its powers); its directly 

siihslanee of our bod 

once previously frozen 



ite c!Kin;:es. be 

ios, while the food 


triment ; the orjjnnisation (pr 
"e neit^hbourin- parts) of ly,„pl, effused from iho'l 

the f( 

■olinblv lo a "reat d 

ormation of tl 

ere it is capable ofalfording nu- 

egree independent of 

nnd, finally, 


e genital Huids, one, at least, of which must I 

)e allow- 

ed by all, to be alive, from the blood itself, ,lo appear to .„e. very stron. 
arguments in favour of the life of the blood."- ^ ^ 

Let us now see whether the sacred volume itself does not further 
-ppoit this doctrine of the vitality of the blood. With reference to he 
passage be ore us, in which, for the first time, it is apparontKMa Iht 
vv-c ave already staled that we do not think the corroctnesi 'th' 
andA,,,,3„,,,,,^ ,^.,.^^^^.,^_^^,^, ^j^^^^^^^^j ^.^ interpretation, an er- 
roneous one as we conceive, from not having pnid du attention to the 


''aswe,,l,t,p,.,nly untenable; while the commentaries above relw^ed 

f,, on,i * 11 '"^"".■Mt-B uuove re erret 

«o, and to which we may also add the of Onkelos. nre clear! 
-"•ect. But prior to entering upon an examination of the other pa^.-'i^ 

'"lu.r ..the .acre,. In i! T r ""' '"l^^f^^' ^ P--'"^J "' tb. IVahn. inH^: 



«« Scr,|,tnre I.o:,nng uiH.n our suhjort, ;t mny bo propc,- to ascertain 
uhctlior the w.,nl " nefesh," ul.ich is translate! above, " Iif->'' ha* 
really swcl, a sigMificati,,,,. And this wo can only ascertain by inmiir- 
in? are li.e meanings wl.ic!. of the most eminent Icxico^ra- 
phers havr attached to ih ■ woni.- " 

n. David the fir<t p!.ce, applies in his " Sepher Hashora^^h. 
i.n, (IJook ,.l R.mts), all the varieu. sii,n,ificati„n., to ;^r/;.,./, wlmd, we 
f.iul fiiven, secondly, by Cesenius, which are : 1, breath ; 2, life the vital 
pnnc.pal in animal bodies, anon,>. u'.ich was snpposcd t<, reside in the 
breath; .], a l,vm,^hein^^ that which l,as life: i., be soul, spirit, as the .eat 
o! the volitions and afl',ctions (the reader will be pleased, however to 
compni-e what Parlduurt says, lower dow,. „„ this snbject, underNo 4)- 
• : also, the obj,.,! of.iesirc ; (i, ^rent, f.nsra.u-v, odour. Buxtorf 
b urst, David Levy, and Newman, u-'ve n. arlv all the same sisrnification^' 
Parlslmr>t has the followin;; :_As a noun, it m...ans. 1 . A breathini; frame' 
the body, which, by breathing, is sustained in lifj. See (Jen ix 4 5 
Lev. xvii. 10-1 1, xxiv. 17, IS ; Deut. xii. ^X From the above pa J 
r.ges, he co:itinues, it seems sulTiciently e\ident not .)n!v that the animal 
body is called nrfcsh, but that this name is in a peculiar manner applied 
to that wonderful fluid, the li'ood, (Comp. Ps. c\Ii. 8.. Isa. liii. 12) 
whence w.> may safely conclude that the blood is that by which the 
animal doth in some sense brrathr- that, agreeably to the opinion of many 
eminent naturalists,! it requires a .•onstant rrfrr,hmr.'n ^^v r rem i mat urn 
from the external air; and that tliis is one of the irreat ends of respi- 
ration. Aristophanes, Nub. lin. 711, in Hke uianner calls the blood 
"^vxn >cn>T,,vi>'x'ii'(K^,vx-r> And thev drirdv up mv soul or bfe i e 
my blood." And Virgil appli-s the Latin ..;,/;,,« to 'the same v-en4 yEn" 
,x., Im. :Uf). - Purpuream vomit ille animam, he vomits forth h's pur' 
plesoul or hfe/'J The word .ueans, 2ndly. adds Parkhurst.a livin.crea 
ture ; 3 the affections, desires, or ; 4, urfcd, has been supposed 
o signdy the spu-,tual part of ,nan, or what wo commonlv call hi. .oul 
must ior myself confess that T can find no pa^sa.e where it hath „n- 
d-..,btediy this mea.,;n:r. ( ;•■!,. xv^v. IS ; ] Kin,, xvii. 21,22 ; Ps. xvi . 

tii alin:i .,m^ ,. s., snuor^ no r:,„,.,r..„. < ^''■'>^\'>} t''"l>l.c,s A../-nr>ro rar«^ con- 

M. M..,^„M.) c. .".1,: o ri z, .1^' iii r ch:;' tt' ■ i'*''-- '-^f' '^■ 

" ::' '•;(:' 'T 'r? " ' " '"' '''''"' '-^ "■'/" '-'"'^ "'"'' ^' - -^' -I- 

t S"" t)i.. Knfyrlnna-iiii ;;rift,ii,i M i., Ri nnn N.). 10, .1-,;. 




10, seem fairest for tl 




lis signification. But 

may not 7icfcs}i in the three 


pa.^.agcsbe nio.t properly ren.lero.; i/™^/,_ „.^ 

ng or animal frame." Tims fir V-uVU,,. , , 

, , ""* '"r laiUtiur.Kt; an. I we t 

"ovv but look at the signif 

a.s ive have done, 

-'i just quoted, to decide that 

<1 in the last 

link vv( 
cations of^/ffrsJi as defined |,y the hieli 

iK^f . . . o 




WO must transhite it in (ien. ix. 4 

c proceed to enumerate all otl 

proinhitioii of |j!ood, or to if.. 

O'ood IS f 

oupled with tlie cfu/cb 

lastingly prohihiieii t 
hook, 2()th and 27th 

hlood : ■' M 

'o liie Israelites. In 
verses, cxciaion 

ler pa^s'igcs luiving rcfin 
vitality. In Leviticus, ch, 
( fat 

nee to the 
ii-, V, 17, 


or suet) as heinir e 

<• 'th chai)ter of tii 


ti same 

ir of beast 

oreover ye shall eat 

no manner of I 

, in any ofyourdwelli 

•iiiy manner of blood. 

At the 17ti 

!i clia 


even that soul shall I, 

er, vc 

rse 10—1;), ,1, 

^ <.onounced against tlie eater of 

" ood, /vhr/kcr it he of fowJ 

. iliat eateth 


"gs. Whatsoever soul a I, 

'C cut olTfroni ' 

oui his 

■epeatcd, and its vitality. aj)parently 

I)rohibiiion of i)Iood is 


whatsoever man, &.c.,' 1 will 

oateth blood, &c. Verse 11 F 

even set my fac 

b^^ln taught. W-rse 10, '<And 
■e rgainst that soul that 

blood, iVc. ; Atr; 

or the life of the /lesl 

:am m verse 12. I„ verse 14, For it i. tl 

1 l! 

in tht 

flo^h, the blood ofit is for the life tl... 
ren of Israel, ye shall eat the blood oi 
all flesh is the bio id thereof 

»e life of all 
ereu!, therefore I said unto the child 

no man 


. . .. . .:, u... o,o,a tt.ereot, whosoever eateth it shall be cut ofl- 

Rashi remarks on this verse, " Its blood is here in pi 

the latter is depend 

Abcn Ezra 

pendent on the former." A 


says, " It has reference to the life fo 

veins which proceed from the left side of the 1 

kinds, those of the blood, and those of 


ace of its life, for 
Life is the blood." And 
■> <or it is known that the 
leart, are divided into tvvi 

•e nir, and these are (depend- 

ent upon each other) like the oil and flame of the lamp "+ ' An", 
here ,t becomes us to c,uote also what Abarbanel xZZ^:}^''^^ 

nel has writte 

n on this 

ry; since it will best i 

passage, in his elegant and elaborate commenta 

to show our readers how the doctrine <-/ ^^iZ^.^Z'.rVr" 
ago engaged the attention of the ol.l TIebrew com e a / , ^t ':,"' 
way, n.erely wrote in accorda.u-e with ,hc r reive Tv' ^^ '^"^ 
Jewish Church.J '"''' "^^'^'''ons of the 

Abarbanel says. '^ The illustrious Main.onides write, in h,s IF . 
Nebnchu.. that the ChaMeans (Zabi. and others,) ai:L;tf::e 

'I.-, 1.0 .thn.. ,„at 111. ,„.lHLitH,n .,,pl,eH ,., o,i:..r. tS.! I),. 'li';" ' "'^^ «-'" 

'leration have since explwle.l. ' ''"'' '"'"'•'•ri science and Juves 

■ iS^v iTrn,:,k- ,Mi U-o„i, M,„:i,c ;[i-ct..ry. n<,f.. p )„, 



they rejected the u.-e ofblooJ as unclean, would yet cat of it when 
desirous of holding communion with evil spirits in order to know of 
matfers lulurc," (compare this remark of Maimonides with an illustra- 
tion from Horace, winch wo shall have occasion presently to quote.) 
And therefore doth the law pr()hil)it the eating of blood, and devote it to 
be poured out and sprinkled uj)oi) the altar. And therefjre, too, doth 
the law proclaim, ' I will set my face against that soul thateateth blood,' 
as it does with reference to the giving of seed to Moloch, but which ia 
not said with reference to any other precept. But Ramhan olijects to 
Maimonides, that ihe Scrijiture doth not so teach, but (hat the reason 
always assigned for the prohibition of blood, is that the life (,> all flesh is 
m the blood, &.c., and that consequently, the prohibition is here on 
account of the life (of the blood.) and not because it was used for con- 
verse with evil spirits. Now, I cannot but be surprised that .Maimo- 
nides doth not refer to the texts quoted by Ramban, teaching the vitality 
of the blood, as above, nor take notice of them, and that Ramban him- 
self doth not refer to the passages Levit xvii.7. ' And they shall no 
more otTer their .sacrifices unto devils, &c.,' which supports the opinion 
of Maimonides." It were needless to notice here the discussion into 
which Abarbanel enters on this subject, after these introductory re- 
marks. SutTicient be it to state, that, with the Hebrew commentators, 
he, here, also maintains the life of the blood. 

Thus far then we have three reasons assigned by the Jewish com- 
mentators for the prohibition of blood. The first is, that an end might 
be put to a kind of cannibalism, •' which obtained," says the learned 
Dr. Townley, " even in the time of Noah, viz:— eating raw flesh, and 
especially eating the flesh of living animals, cut or torn from them, and 
devoured whilst recking with the warm blood." Plutarch, in his Dis- 
course of eating Jlcslt, informs us, that it was customary in his time to 
run red-hot spits throu;;h the bodies of swine, and to stamp upon (he 
udders of sows ready to farrow, to make the'.r flesh more delicious ; and 
Herodotus (I. iv.) assures us, that the Scythians, from drinking the blood 
of their cattle, proceeded to drink the blood of their enemies. It is even 
affirmed that both in Ireland and the Islands and Highlands of Scotland, 
the drinking of the blood of live cattle is still continued, or has but 
recently been relinguished. Dr. Patrick Delaney says, '■ Tlujre is a 
practice sulTiciently known to o!)tniii among the poor of the k:n^(^lm of 
Ireland. It is customary with them to bleed their cattle for food in 
years of scarcity ;"* and the Anahjlical Reviewers observe : " it will 
scarcely appear credible at a future lime, that at this day, towards the 

*The Doctrine of Abstinence fiom Blood defended p. 124., note, London 1734. 
See also " Revelation examined witli c udour," vol. 2, p. 2U, Loudon 17S2, 8vo. 


close of tlio eighteenth century, in the Uhmh 



bullocks with lances, that i\ 

nds [of Scotland,] the na 

lives everj' spring or su 

and some parts of the 

mmer attack the 

fi„. ,,. Tl . . ' . """^ '"^^' ''"^ ""■''' '''""^'' '^"t prepared by 

fire. I ,0 cc!ol>ra,ed traveller, Bruce, relates with uu utene^s the 

«cene w ucl. e witnessed near Axu.n, U.e ancient capital of Al^ a 
when ,he Abyssinian travellers, whon. he overtook, sei.ed ttv' 
.7 were dnvin,, threw it down, and eutUn, .,caks ,Vo,„ it, ate th m 
-w, a„d d.en drove on the poor sullerer I.Hore th.n.t Sir . ohn Z] ..t live eels dipped in salt, whicl. ,i,ev devour aM e 1^ " 
w h anpnsh round their hands."J Major Denhan. also sa ^ , " 
<"M '-'.i named Ki Raschid, ^ nati.e of Medina." who ntduLc^ 
i;;-l-'Mns ,;,e heen at Waday, and at Senna .; d^^^^ 
Imn a people east of Waday, wl,ose ,rea,e<, l,.:„rv was eed o„ 
w meats cut in.m the animal while warn> and full of h,.., ^ '^Z 
:^ a well knovvn tact, that the savage natives of New Zealand or^ 
t-"o .0 quatr ,he blood of their enemies when taken in hattll- 

A second reason for the prohibition of blood is that a;si.ned by 
Maunonules as red-rred ,0 by Abarbaiiel as above, an authoritv ^ "e 7 

01 all creeds.ll Me quote here, the passage in his " Moreh Ne 
buchmi," to which Abarbanel apparently alludes <. Yet exc 
enounced against some of the^; as I c.^: .f^^L^^^JZ 
hose times men were too apt to be led into a desire and^;;^;' 
eating :t by a certain kind of idolatry, which wa,, the chief caTXi 
was so strictly forbidden." And although Nachmamdes as noti" " 
.U,>a IS he also of opunon that its prohiL.non was .rounded on the 

. t I3ruc-..-s Travels, v.l. ;j. p. 3;>i:«; Sv^r^'y.':*;;,' ' ''" 'r-<- ^,i, p, 105. 
iAnuUm. IHUd. i'.,.ii.l 111. III the year 1801 p 4a,i 


to come." These last word-; of R. Moses bar Nacliman ieaii ua to tlit- 
illustration from the writiiifrs of Horace, already referred to, when (jiiot- 
ing a similar passaL-e from Maimonidot'. It occurs in his Satires, 1st 
book. Sat. 8. 

V idi f<,'om(l nii^'r.i siiccmctatu vadeie pallii 
Caiiiiliaii), pcililiu^ iiudis jki-mkjik; canillo, 
Cum S:ii,'ai!:i ni;ijnri' uliil:iiiteiii. I'lilliir utrasquo 
I'VetTiit lidrrctidiis aspcrtu. Scalpcro tiMruiii 
Un;^tiibiis, ct piilliun divcllorf iiKirdifus a<;nam 
C(i>p<'riint : in fiwsani ronfiKus, ut inde. 
ManfH cliietrnt, anii/iun f/ipoiim (Litnras. * 

Dr. Towiiley Mllunis ii< fiiitluT siij)i)ort and interesfing illustration of 
the assertion of .Maim 


,1 ,^ 

He s:iys "the sacred hooks of the Hin- 
doos exhibit traces of the same kind of vvorshii) formerly prevailing 
amongst them. In the Asiatic Researches, vol. v., is a translation of 
the Rudhiradhymja or San-uimry Chapter" of the Calica Punin, by 

W. C. B!n(nii.'re, Est]., from which the following are extracts: 

" Birds, tortois;-s, aHi^'■ltors. fnh, nine species of wild animals, buf- 
lalos, bulls, hc-g.>at-<, idiMeiuiions, wild boars, rhinoceroses, antelopes, 
guanas, reindeer, lions, tigers, men, and blood <lvn\vn from the olTerer'a 
own body, are looked upon as proper oblations to the Lnnldess Chandica, 
the Bhaimras, &c. 'I'ho pleasure which the goddess receives from an 
oblation of blood of fish and tortoise, is of one month's duration, and 
throe, from that of a crocodile. By the blood of the nine species of wild 
animals, the goddess is satisfied nine months, and for that space of time 

conl-,ues propiticus to the olVerer's welfare That of the lion, reindeer, 

and the iuiinan spi>cies, pro(hices pleasure which lasts a thousand years. 
—The vessel in which the blood is to be presented, is to be according 
to the circumstances of the o'r.rer, of gold, silver, copp.^r, brass, or 
leaves sewed together, or of earth ,)r of tutenngu-, or of any of the 
species of wood used in sacrifices. Let it not be presenled in an iron 
vessel, nor in one made of the hide of the animal, or of the bark of the 
tree, nor ^n a pewf^a". tin, or leadea vessel. it nut 1m.' presented by 

* Tims eltf,-:int!y ipiidorod Ky Fraiii'i-<: — 
Caniilia with di-hcvoU'd hair, 
(i'daok \va-< Ii'.t rol,(., her fret wi-rc- tun-) 
V> ith Saj^aiia, inf'^nil dame' 
UiT fld.T si.-lri. imhia- lanii'. 
AVjth yeUintcs dire th.y till d tht^ placf, 
And )iidi'(ius palt' whs litliciV fc;ec. 
Soiiii with their nail.-, they scrap d the grouik.l. 
And fill'd a niatfie trench' 1, 
M ith a hlaok hiriiti's thick sirea iiin;; t;<ire, 
WhoNC nieinheiH with their teelh they tore. 
'J hat they may charm the npriffhts t» tell 
Stiine curiouH a'lccdottis from helL 



J^mun^ U ,u Ihcgrouml.- ..rinto a,.y oUW vessels used atolhcr limc« 
loro.R.nn, fo.,J ,o ,he J.„y. I[.„„„. UU..\ un.A aKvays be prosonttM 
.na.ncal cor.a,tl..n .os..l, and n.-vvr on any ac-ou,.t in avc..d 
ma.], of loaves, or .in.lar .uSMances." Thus ,ar Mr. Biac,uiere. 
I'urthor .lustration is supplie.l l.y ,Ik- prolounl Spenc.r, in his 
mot va!iial.!i' vorii. " Dc [ ,<,r;i,„ . ii i r.- 

I'.aruin Rationaljus t where hi> ^'i mv i .11. 

,1 UHLK 111, .s,u,v\s ns liuw the heallun used 

'''«'-'l, ami sonu.tKnes, even human blood, by way oflustration. They 
.-.u,ed that the b!,.,d of their saerifices was the iavouriu- n.od c!f 
thor den.ons. J ..r tlus reason th.>y were at the greatest pain, to pro- 
serve u, or then, .n s.ue ve..!, .,r uh.. this m,t at hand, in sLe 

U. nMheg.onnd And, hen, u,.,le they at. the ne.d, and the demon, 
a. .iK.y unagmed, d,ard. the bhu.d. .hey hereby n<,t .nly d..e!ured the„,- 
.•^eives ins vo,ar,es, and profess-.d to hokl eommnnion whh hin., hut 
consKJered themselves as having beeome purified. 

Moses, ,n his •• R;u,.„.al of the Ri.ual of tl.. Hebrew wor 
«h>p, won remarks on Lev.tieus x,x. ^.i,. . y, ,^,i, nut eat anytlun. 
uak he ldo..d ou.nt to be rendered uL or hcf.c blood, and is an allu- 
s.on to the ,d. la.rous worship of demons by gathering blood together for 
ti.em, as .nppo^ed their food, and then.selves and e.-in. part of it 
whereby , hey were es,ee„,ed tho dennm's guests, and by this kind of 
con.mumon w„h them, were supposed enabled to prophecy and foretel to con.e-,0 have flutuharity with these spints, L to rece ve 
rev-elatu.ns and be inspired whh the knowledge of secret things " 

On an attentive and dispassionate J perusal of the ]7th chapl.- of Le- 
v.f .cus, already ref ■, red ,0, we ,^,ink further strong support will be f;>und 

*TI,. vory opp,.i;,., it uill h. po.rcivod, of the ^:osaic In.tiUu.on 

Caiital). ](;? 
Tart 1, di. 1. Sec. 6. 

t Ivl. r,,,„„l,, „.,:,. s,c. al,„ „,.„,, „,.,„,j „„ ,,„|„„p,,^. ,„ ^^^^^^^^ 

srr;z! ™:;rri"'»^^''^ iE..n^.;:s,j S'ri':,;!r:i'S: 

" i-.^.... .<U "I'U UHIlSUlUU'li ^)lt^ tj<v()k tl, u.a -. 



for the opiriioti cif Maimoniilc^, tliit one of llu' reasons forllie jirohihilion 
of Llooil \v;is to |)ut ;ni erij to iddhilroiis prnclic-s. The chni^ter com- 
mences wiih the comriiariil to hoth prie>ls aiul people, tint any making; a 
meat ^a^•nfn■e ur •' killing,' an ox, lainh, or goat, in or wiiliout tlie camp. 

thit we arc ii-it livin;: in ii dny. wlicii. bccMiHc our iiitcrini't itinn or-onip p'lrtiniix of 
It niiy niif li^ i-lrtricMl with tint ..I' lli.' tinjuritv dt'.nir fcllou- ii,,mi. wr llirn Inic, iniiy 
not lip .n ihi, 1,1,.- .(■:! vdliiiii.-. I, ilir.'.'t tliiMiiiit. iiiioii, ir.t u> a tii itlcr «( .\ <lo,'lu:itic 
thi.'olo^'i.Ml, or LMUlnivi' tcN.l.iu'v, Iml Ui ( xaminr uilh tli.'iii \v';.:it li,'lit it llr.ows 
on a --riiMititin q'U'Hlion, wliifh, tji,>iii;li it li;i- 1. ;t l-r a (■(M!i|i,iiat'iv.-lv rownt 
p<'P(.,l en ,':!!,'(.- 1 iiicn'- att.'iifii.n. is iifV.TllicU-- of lli,- i i-t inciiiiMil tn tlirin. Nor 
iitv w,. uilliii^r,,, l,..||,.v,M|,ai wiMMiuiotoiviipv (-•iiiiu.M, ^rouii 1. and that \vr have not 
b<H'n wan-ante I m -.•.■kiu:,' to .|.-lVnd llir -a.-u-d p.i-r iVoni tlic in-idioii, uttackn of 
t.ho sc.ifli.i/ :iii 1 i-Miiraiit unhclirw r, a- ur li.,,r . :i iravonr.'d lodol.y a.ldmhi^' lc<ti- 
ninnv of the lii.dic.-t oid.T to Ihf tiulli of tlie ^laiptural I.mcImiilc ot' t!,c vitaUty of 
tlif Moo 1. And altlioii'^di wo iiiav lie cliar-cd with dwidlin,' too lon^^ .ii a topic, 
ncit Ml li-^j). n-a!.le to our ^^llllj.■.•t. yet do we trii<f tliat out reason" for ^o .joini,' 
will ho our (A-iai-^o, d'lio i Ira with ih ha- In'oii. who diall -av that ihcro arc not thoso 
to-(lav, and ihit ilcav ^\ill not ho llio,o tomorrow, ready to donv llic Siaipliiral 
teaching oil thi. p..cil ; It i> rca~..nahlc to <up[.oM' that there r.rc to lie found th()>c. 
le-s ()ijah;ir I lo .,'ivc an opinion than the Icariicl IJIunieiih a h, to i|o mi. These 
remark- we have oon-ujered as lnaa,' ealle 1 f..r. hy <onie of the re\ aws of ,,nr liuinhlo 
ondoavours, which his e app-Mred m the pnl.'i.. p.,.-.. .\nl allhonjli we are of 
opini.Mi that, a- a ml", it i- m ither n.-ee-ary no, wi-e to intiee -u, h,_wo speak with 
nil .hie H'-pevt. an.l with friendly and irr.iti.ful feelin,' lor tlie fl itterini; manner in 
whkdiall have-pok.'ii of in— y^f. as th -y may c mvev th.' -entinie iN .•'■"'s,,..i(; of our 
readers, we sh, ill lie^r le.ive to take notice of' -oiuc few. I'or th.. re is. ms already 
Bssi<,'iicd in this note, nioio especially in that we have av.ii.led all of a do..rtimtic 
char ictor, wo cannot a^'.-eo with on'e writer, that any ohj.-ction can attach to what 
wc have advanco.l. because -'it cannot he ,li-cii--|.d in' oppo-ition to tlie writer's 
views, without raidn,Mheolo!j;ical (]uestions whicli h.ive nothin ' to do with science 
proper." We ho- leave to repeat that we hav.^ avoi.l,.,], an,l sh.lll conduue to avoid, 

all tlie.)lou'y that is not i unon to ,Fow an.l Christian. If defence of a Scriptural 

a.ssertioii, hearini,' on a matter exclu<',ve!y s,.i..„iifi,., |„.li|;,.|y to rai-o the theol.i'ical 
questions t<> which this writer ohjects, tlaai. we fear, that ii'i opp.,-,ition to his views, 
and at the ri-k oi his futmo ensure, w.. niu-t p rsi~t in our fnist course We cannot 
admit that the Scriptures, rvii if we do that the.ilo-ical (pie^ have imthiicr to 
do with science proper, we believe that mncli valu.ilile ~,'i..ieilic inf.irniatioiriias 
orii,nnate.l the S.'ripfuros. On ref.avnce to what we hav,. already wiitten, wc 
think we cannot be ch iri;.'.] wi:h oblrii iin,- ., ir own vi .w- .m th, snbj'.'r • we have 
merely, as a inattiT of inloimation. sh.iwii iv i.], r- .vhat h ;- h n'l'e.l' in 
sources, some attainable. s.„ne not ireiierally attaniibU, t.. th. m. We of course feel 
incompetent lo deciil.', as d.ies our critic.'wh.'ther w.. he a li.!!.-- rjst or 
theolo^ I'„.t wo il.i IV.d our-elf ..ill,. 1 i,p.,n t., .Ii-.nt . n;ir. 'y fi...n liis'issor- ■'tile human coustituti. .11 nn-t hav,- .'h in -■ I very m i.'l, m the course of 
the last few thousan.l years, if the rules of Leviticu- are at all applicable now " 
We must not aieicip ,t.. our s„!,j,.,t, hut w.- 'v. iM ,i-k, un l.a- w;i ,t h.^a.U 
may the laws of Leviticu, be eompri-e.l : W,. e.m hat uiw. r. v.,) 1, r tli'.Ke .,f cautiou 
abstmaice, n,.,leniti.Mi. c'..aiilin..s .,;,,, 1 pii,i,v-. .-a, Ml,..|,.f. n- v.. can 1 .,;i aid that 
the himun coiisiituiaai must have chattel v<a v much in the cmr-o of the la-t few 
thousand years, if the rules of are ijnilr applicable now. We do not 

wish to speak disivsp;ctfully of, o, to underrate at ad. the learned an.l a. iipli-hed 

Meade; but w...|o thulk that some further sepp.-rt and bett.-r illnstr.i'i.,us of oui critic's 
assertion shouM have U-.-u {riven, and is call..! f,ir. than thit a.hluce.l by him ■ wliich is 
simply, that •• .V.-ad,. (Medica Sacra, Lepra Moibus,p 12) says that no trace is to he 
foun.l m . itlur (Ireok or Arabian authoi.s. of lepro-v m walls ,ir ^'ainients; thit ill.. 

Hebrew diK'tors themselves Uilniil that no mji h 

ili-ease wa^ known 'in iinivers.i 

mundo,' oxceptinj,' ' Sola Judea et folo populo israelii .' " Wc must remind tlu- 

writer that others bet<ides Meado have written on the leprosy ; but adaiittinj:, to tln> 



an<l not l.rin^inir fhom unto tlio door of tli.> tnhornnclo of (ho ronjrrcga- 
tion, to olT/r an oOl-rini,' unto the Lord l)cfon^ tlic lahcrnnclc of thn 
Lord, l)l,.„d sImII |,e i,„[,„t,.d iinfo that iinn, • lu- l.alli shod hh.od.f and 
that man shall l,,- rnt ofT f:om amonr | 


To tl 

that the childn-n of Israol may hnwj: thrir safrifices which it 
in till- open field nnto the Lord unio the ch.or of tl 

le end 
ley offer 

!\e talxTtiat'Ie of the 

ronLTeirnion. unto tiie prieM, &e. V. f,. And the pri.^st shall sprinkle 
'' l.loo,! J tip,,,, the altar of the Lord, &.c. V. 7, 'I'l 


more off t their sarrifiers unto d.-vils, after whom thev' ha 

Kit tlnn- may no 


orin:,r. § 'J'lii.s shall be a statute t 

ve t;on(! a 
iir ever unto them throui-hout their 

fullf-<t pxiciif. til." rorrpctnc-is (,f M,.;i,l 




of MK 


'M'l"''ii-c.l. Il...t, tliricf,,rc, tlicpiincii 

c's a-^siTtion, lines it t",,||(,\v ]» 

i('c'im--c III!" chsca^o 

'•n.iiif „M,1 in;i|.|,'iraM,. ii.,w, U',. ||„„k tl 

;«-• <ll-.ippr;,r;Ul,c of llif .il-.,'.'!.,', M, I,, u,U 

lll'-llf t|-|MtlUCIlt III. I .ll.Ull 1.1 I,(.\i 

If (■..iitriiiv to 111' IJK 

tit' trcatiiiciit. 
If "liter liiiii-i'lfa. 

if li^lit 

furljici- let ii^ii-li, wlictlicr til,' trc'a'l 

llM ;i-i' 

ici;s arc 

iM(l lliat 

iipct lniiL:ui'J in favor 

ippM.Mhli! tlu'ii. uliv li.t now, 



li- apniMiiiii: mill rinp/iiririi 


III' tii.'l,.[.ro~_v>[,nkcii,ifiii Lcvit 

iiU'lit iiirMiilcfl in ill,, ca .,. nf ciiiin 

even Mow a.ldpi,.,! m ticitiii'^'coiit 



prusciilMij ill I 

■'■r- an I tju. like, M|)ariliiin ami ricai 

that " tl 
new one 

.I'vitii'us, IS ridt iiinv, aftor 

:i:,';oiis leprosy 

i<'a-.\va-C(jiita:;i,ai-. tlieie <'aii be Mn ,l(ml,t.) i, not 

11 sriiiillpcx, iiH". isles, 

niiiiiilv till' ticatiiieiit 

imis(lisc-a-i',; aii.l wliellier 

Illness, wliieli 

111 >iicli Tii-cs (it'f(,iita"ii 

iiii «'X|ieiii>iico of tlioii-ai 

Ills (if voai- 

lie nature i 


li^ease is contiiiuajiv clianWi 

We are fullv prepare I to aijniit witlit 


,n,ijj;in:,' up;' hut us we liavo se'.n. I 

111,' writer 

filil ill-eases weiiriii;; out, and 

niis>i()n of this f^ct 

Bonof Ai 

Wert- ( 


IS not nures~ii 

lent in prevctitiii' 

'riiiu die exarn|>le lie liinHelf aililiices, an 
ly an adiiii-^ion that the piineiples ,if Ireatmont 

e iiiiw liiiiurintroil 

or rcMiovinLC chsea 

iiiaiii, eoritaiiis tlie wi-est and 

uciary remarks, weOh-erved that 

I'ik'e, niii-t I 

«■ wroiiij nr inap- 

enaetinents on the >ul.ject of lieultl 

since their emmeiation'. do vet roniain lik 

ii'i-t valuahie iTiiieinles. r 

the h'i;ishitiiin of M 

■ecoiiiiiieiKJations ani 

the Eteniii,' just 

cation of I he ]'l 


1, whi'h. thiMii,rli thousands of years have elapsed 
iill whieh proeeeileth out of \hf nioiiih of 




le, am! lu-i as wi< 

as when In si 


e airl ivveivnt Con-iileratioii 

e;anil are therefore, now. as ili,.,,. fullv wort 

■ided for theedifi- 

hay We I 
in takcuir 

We liave a'ieaii\ 

laie, vi'f 

' niailu our oa-e 2;oo,|," as 

o \w not wi;h,!i 

1,' le.ive of oi 

aw om 

leioie. now. as in,.,,. |i,|iv worthy our most 
Now, ahhoii.rh ^,v^, cannot flitter ourself 

•a-ed to 

■ ta of 

iiiioilier crilie h is hei 


cannot hiit tliiiik. that af 

ireriiie, wliieli wo d.i with all kin 1 

o'li- e\-pre<-ioMs ju-t quoted, and 

sii|>port of his po-i:ion, ili,. l,v 

ter iiu(! eotisideration of ||| 

y eon-iileration and re-peot. 


^'le. and an 


laws o 

f I. 

\i'corihn.r to 
iirthe hfcMit tl 

ipiite upplicahlu to tlie human eonstitut 

e Very hit 
vitieus are l'o 


he has adv.iiieed in 
are wi>e, arc val 

shall I 

ion even now. 

te iMii-iiJereil a 

s a nian->lavei-. 


t Ti: 

le auiiuul -aciiiiced, containrd in the h!oo,l whi.-| 
iyep'tition Itadii think, i, intended to convey, iha* howl 




. Ill an initnoner 

111 he re-pon-i 

the hlood in tl 
X "'I'lie hlo ,1 ,',f 

'!"■'■ I 

I- llli'lu 


"t; and Was 

f^in o(Turin;,'s was lik 
offered for the wliol 

the VKtim was rioei^ 
IS si'attered at llie 1 

111 tiie eniid,. 
1 l>v the iirii 

iiii'i'i'in of the ti'\f. 

loiloesnot uprinkh 

"it. and on theddesof ihe alt 

111 a Vessel for that purpose 

ewise placed upon the lionis of the al 

Ihe hhod of 

of the Holv of itolies 

peo[ile ,.rfor the hi-h [)li.'-t. it w 

tar, and if thev were 

and on the day of 

as >.prin'<led towards t'hi 

propitiation on the lid of 




giTicratioiiH." Tac iiil.iilii.ii (if iIk'so wokIs wc lliinli, rnnnot 1h> nii?- 
takcn. It isovMl.titly l.> s,-,iiie llu; dircctidM of .Ilviiio \v.);s|,i|) to its 
P"'l"'i' «''']'''■'. mill lo |.iit ;m ciul to i.loI;ilroiis pi.-u ilcfs. In verves 
S and f), the s.-Miie ilireetioiis nn.l penalties are laid d(Avn with reference 
to liurnt on;M-ini:s or sarrlfiees. And then (v. 10) evid.>nlly and wncines- 
i!on;.hly, in the Mini.' eo'mexion. (unou's the prohibition and penally 
a-amst ealin;.',,! ; a// f>/n,,l is the expression used hy the text, heeaiiso, 
asIJa^hi aptly remarks, •' the prinriple hoin- 1,-iid down inverse II, that 
it is the h!.,()d that niaket'i an nl^.netnent for llie life (nefesh.) and as 
the Israelites nii-ht conelnde tint reference here was only made to the 
I'I'^'hI of nniin:.!> eonseer.-ited f.r sa. rifn-e, iIk refore the text exi)lieitly 
Slates ^///.VW." .Next ful!,eA>:,s we conceive another reason wliv hl....j 
should not he eat.':., vi/. ; '• f..r the life of the llesh is in the hlood,"' V. 11. 
Anil I have jriven it you upon the altar to make alonement for your life, 
(iielesli.)i;,r the hlood niaketh ;in ;itonenient f.r the life,' (nefedi' ) V.12. 
Tiiereforo have I unto ih' ehiMren of Israel, no s,,„l <.f vou shall 
•-at hlood, neither shall any stranger that sojouriieth amon- you f eat 
l'l'Hnl,A-e. In vti-e 1!] ,the l.lood ..fheaMs or fowl that may'la' eaten, is 
directed to hcjxutn d on tl,r -mionl and to he coirrrd ivilh dtisf ; another 
preventiti\eof ido'atiou^ piictiees. In verse Ifi, we are a^ain told that 
hlood is (he life of the lle.h, the hlood of it is lor the •• nefesh" or life 
Ihereof, and that heaee is the prohihition. 

Further support to the opinion of Maimaaides may he deduced from 
Levil. XIX. •2G--"Ve shall not eat anythin- with the hloo.l, neither shall ye 
useenchanlMients nor observe times." The eonnexiim of the one prohibi- 
tion with the latier havln- rel'eienee to idolatrous practices, we take to 
l)e very significant, csp -eally as the followini,' verse has evident reference 
to the sauu subject. In Duel. ch. xii, v. 1(1, the prohibition to cat 
blood is repeated and the command to '• pour it upon the ground like 
water;" and at versr 'JT. the I loo.l of ^aerifices is to be poured upon the 
altar of (.'od. Auain at chap, xv, v.^.'J. The incident in the first book of 
Samuel., h. 1 {.. v. IJ-MH, u.-uM ■. n,l to slua. that the people of Israel c. ;.- 
sidered the majesty of hoaven p. cu'iaily outraged by the eating of blood 

■ ,i. .la- l,a-,„.^. K.-ui ,..ina,l.~. ■ i ,,■ aU h...,lil,fii!M..- .,f lif,, drp..M,!s on tla- 

••l'-l.ll..'n.t.,n.,.a:'h f;.!, Ih:nv :.,p-n. I that v.- p„ur tlu- b! I '„„ ,mv al:ar. 

-auvl.v ,r,.:ia^„K, tiK.. ,.,!,;..,, I, „ „..,-,.. y,,,, ^1, ,w y..u have (..u-i.l.M.i you. 
.^^n life has t,Lrn f..rl.e,.,| „y y,.„, an I >nu brin- one life. whi.O. I h.uv ah4.iy 
|vrmitu..l yea to t..k... i , plac. ..I aaoiiaT." \Vc do nol use llie oxac. v.a.ds o( 
loislii. but (-icleavi.;,r biufly to irnf his niraninir. 

t Since we fia.i here the pre!iihi'i,.n is ..xtendc.i to prn<.plvte^ nU„ we niuv 
perhaps see an a,kln...Mal r.a-^on in favour of the opinion ..f .Maiin<.Mi,les. The prose- 
Ijftes were forbuldej, ,(. as tliey were i.iohitry. since their example nii^ht prove conla- 
fe'iou*. Hence, as Aben I-.ziu remark-, the comiuanJ to cover the blood in v. 13 aUu 
iippnes to them. ' 



tl.cro Kpnkon of. Kin,, DaviJ appcnrs drarly to point ,.ul tl..- ...nnox- 
'<"' l..-tv>v,M, .1... piulnhition of M„..,|.,-;,tinjr .•u,.l il... i.lnli.trous pn.cticoa 
"' ""• l'".ill..'n. He .says in il,.- I(i,|, IV,!,,,. v. i, thrir s..,„,„. shall 
M- "m!iip!u..! that !,a>tu. all.T anuii.,..- go.i, ,h,,r dnnk oljmnii, of 
VW w,ll I n.,t ofliT, &,•/' AV. w,li not s.vk C..,- Inrth.-r illustrations. 
'•>'tl,„M tl,atM,ni.-M.„t havol.rr, . Kh,.v.l ,.,,h„.v ,i,,„ ,!... opinion onlrr- 
tainnl l,y Mairnonidcs is not uitliont scriptural uar,anl. 

TI.e third ivasoM lor tho prohih.tion of hloo.l, viz, hrraust- of its 
vitah.y, n.uM hav luM-n anli,-ipat,..l l,y a pr.usal of ,hr srriplurn 
|.assag,.s ,|uote(i. TIutc is hut one- passaur u.oro, to uhu-h wo 
ivou!,! moiv f,)!ly ivfor hrrc. It ,s Drut., rh. Vl., v. 'J.'j, •• Only 
ho suro (11,1,. 15,. sli-on,,) tl,at ihou .at not tho hl..o,i, lo, the hlo'oj ,s the 
lile (.u.f.>h) ; an,| thou mayest n..t oat th,- life (n.^fesh) with tho flesh. 
[For tl,e ..riirin nn.l appoaramv ..r .1,.. f„ll„wi„:. „„(,.. «.■.. xxv-^ 17 „ote 1 

a 8., LT.Hyon ,.ur.,t, ,.,vat„.„ „n ,1... ILhrow w.,nl ,„;;.s/,. The wril..,-! v ,' w" 

o ;:::"m:;";^ ':;::" "'^" 'i-, ['•■':'- --•! ■■ -a- • ^i.-.i,),., ,.,„ .. „„;.:imi,.! "" 

n a , ,.,uhar ,n,.Mn,.r appl...,i t., ,hat w..„l..rt„l llui,l. the U,,,,.! .tc " K.,w •• vi h 
I, . .,t,„.,<, .l.f.,... ,,„... l,.,,n,..,l w,i,..,. w.. 1,..^. ,,. b,. p..,„ i l I t,. "■ • . " 

L^c , it . , "^ ;■" "' '"^•f-'-'^y '" ••""■^ '••<• 'nliy int.- the V.St fi..l,l or plniolo- 

orj «,|, „,,,,,„, tit, ,.„.lj,.;n-„s out, n .n,r ,v.nv,.-ii.,„. HkiI " t hero is „., „,.-.„,„ 
at. rpi, talinn ,t m.-an- a l„-..atl„„tr, or aininal tViun,.." S, ,■ .„„■ n,:,,tati..h f,, n, liim 

u..- .1,.^ si,ap..d t.y the i,a.,d'o,-o;;;::;,L;^,;:;;.;;^^^ 

I i,b.„-,,r;a rat.,.nal o,,.. too, th. t.xt t..ui.os us/si,,,v w. |,,,d h^^ -tTa •.! 
if '. .1 n r '* "' ''■^''l^'^""y H;;,afv in th. .S.r,p„n, s, a p.-r^-.n, .„ i,ul,v„>ual 

\;±y::J':^:i':^' ■'?■ -'J '^^ »2; ' -• "^; 22. e ; 22. li. N.;;.i.i;:;^;.;'.,!!: 

* " ■■' ' «-••■•-""&'■ i-'-Jiij-nco,.- jii.-i 4.„.ic,i, the u^i-tit:Gtu< miuJu that ''uc-fesh" 

I ' 



Thou ^,„n „„ rat ,f, ,!.,.., ^h.It pour it ..,..,„ ,l„...nrtl, ,ns vv.t.r. TJ.ou 
^'"./ -/ r.t .,, „,„ „ ,„,, ,,, ,,,, ^^,,„, „,,.„ ^,_,^, ^^,^^,^ ^,^^ ^ i^^^^i^ 

Ix-ciiiM- (.fiis Vitality. '^ ' *" 

iT:::;,;K;j ':;:-',!,:.- w ...„,. 

»>i<'<"i. w. .^iU. o, ,1 .,,';■ ;;;:''; •'•" - "•'•■''• '"■• - "I'-n..,! « ,,1. ■• .i.,„.': 

f.'.|., tlu. w,,:., ,.xl ti """•' a M.:,l,l_v. W nir «„|, tlu- l„ll„«„.,r ,, ,>.,,',. 

r-n..,k wi,i„„ CkJ ■■ vr; '■ ''!" ":'""i';". >'""'"'"^' "•"■" -'-'•-■ ^'^^^ 

«--I"-i.llv H.u-.. ,1,.. w ,.,■ i ,. w, '■ .,' "i'^"/^" "'■■ '"-'■" "'^" ^va. .|..:,.i 

Vvtli.t want..,! aniinili,.!, , „ ,1 i, , ' "-^"" "l"'^" " "^'^ '/"■ 

*""' "..•.^■/ ., ^o', ' V , 'rr '"■''-'' ""■^"'~ -'">. ^""1 'iK'U that .he 

^vi^M,flyi,,^nMl,i,,kan■ ..^ ,; /^■'^'•■••,'''':^ a sd,„la,, all w|,„ |. .,ur rnti. 

!»l'-ly.ivlnn„,.H ■ Ml ",^^^^ I W- have 

did not n„.an lit;, a' ',,■,," ' I '' '" ''"'^" "'''' ^^■''^" '"^■^'"t '^"U> 

Jlr- I),. S„la ,s l:,|,.a'nin r „ ' .,,,,.,'" t I"-"'"'"""" '/' 'In- -uin,. „r 1,1,,,,.), 
;\-;"l.'M w,h that tau,., : u I, , , ; , ' ^^ " '■•'" :\'"y'-'>y '■""-■^l^''- tins n.,.,ark 

.^^•' I'Mv. a. V..,, „„ ,, I, ,.,„ „' .''"';' -''■'"• '"^rm,,. has thnni^^huut .li-,,lav..l. 

^•■<n, w,. luv, l.v „., ,v .■ I, k '^ "^ ""' "•■'"■-^-- As will b,. pivsontl^ 

^un.iy l„ti„..,„. ,|„ 'ri'; ,-'':';••■ 7!" """• ^ ^^"^•" '"'""y ' '""'^-1'. ' 

£.::;i::l;;:,l:;:. :-;:;::B;'-i'-vi "E=s^;'::is 

<'f life. i!,u as «:; ar . ( i ;,i ,Tifi, 1. - ' f ; '^"""'""'' ""' ^""^'•^■- """i ^■"^''^r- 

con,r..v..rsial character, w.! ' ' h""^;,';";"/"'";'"^' ll''^ 'l"-i'-M-^ ..fa -io.,.,;,,,. 
niait, sul,j..,.t, which wc hav.. do e onivt, / '^••""'""^' ;!'«•" -> Ion;, from o.- 



Th.- ( 

or(w,„„j;n-a.<„nH :i><sl-nr,J fur tlu- |)r..liiI)ilion of l,|,„„I-cnf 

!'<• (-(.nsKl, 1.(1 :i.s ilic vKini/. Hnf jt |i;is | 
l)y iIk' H.'Krcu |)C(>|.Ic iIic pn.liil.iiioM ofhlo,,,) 
in other w^nls i!i;i! U 
♦.'iFiTls (if till- ni:ict!cr 

Ills moy 

• •<n lr;iil,li,>ri:illy \n-U\ 

1^ nlsd.'i ,S- 

iii-( .'itiii;; is liM l)i(lijc[i on 

nut my la 


rirc<.iiiit ol' ihc lijitifful 

• uiii (if ilii-i i^ L'lV' n III till 

iliyicMlly. And we li,)|,| (|,;it Miir„i,.„t int 



:| vol 



l)c roni;iiiH'.| on ih,- subject in the 'r;iliiiii,| ;,n.| nil 

inv.prciiv.' .>r \vli;it iiKiy 

TI.Mt til 

ii'r .■nilli(int;ilivi 

pniciicf IS really a lad on 


e in 

view, sve think m >hmvn, 1st, hy the Senptuh 

n\entaiois; and, .'{nllv. Iiv oilier aiitl 

sanatory point of 
; Oiidly, hy the roiu- 


1 . T/ir ijirrls nfhliMMl nit 

ni>' lire slioirn I 

Scnjifti/rs. We v|,j||| ,|,„,|, 
eient t<j show that the Tiet is 

/>'■ /)/ 

]>ln/^ir,i/h/ hid hif I},, 

lew pa-SML'esonlv, thmiviie' th 


1/ roH n >i 

(1 ill III. 

clearly intimated hv in 

i-linlriij llir cnrniniiid/ /,iii\ wliiel 

it will mt he diMiied. was intendeil t, 
the moral well-heinir of the Hehrews 

t'v are siilli 

■piration. It j.^ 
I, we presume 

jn- >mote tin- j liy>i. al as \\\ 



that delileth 
baneful ell 


I' pr.K tic," is sp(,ken of 



;is one 

:•«' ;t piaciici; of 

ments a;.'ainst tiiose wh 

m the prophets it is also sjiolun 

I :issa;:e will perhaps'ce. In ihe I ook of l| 

ii'.'ivy jud. 

prophet I.aiah ch. 11), v. 'Jti, (iod in denou-icn:: his | 

o oppress 


awful punishment, " And I will feed them tl 

proclaims the fellowing as tl 


own flesh [what woiiM he ih,' fearful elleets of 

ifit oppress thee with their 

must he known ti 

in tl 

eating their own flesh" 


lesame connexion the text immediat, 

1 sweet ( 

and thev shall he drunken with their own hlood as wit! 

of hi 


Here the text we think dearly and aptly illustrates ijie 

■ly adds] 

or new 

ood eating, which, as has heen indisputahly shown I 
s really the same eflTect, when taken 

maddens and stupifies, and this, whether I 


ly experience, 

in quantity, as wine; for it both 

beasts. In tl 


luman blood, or tlie l)!ood of 

same way speak Jeremiah, Kzekiel and the oil 

with inclinaiion and o 

'l)portimity, it would periiapsi 

'er i)roj)hets. 

matter to show that among the earliest Christ 

as '' necessary thir 



' thill' 

they considered the command, tendi 


'e no difTicuit 
ian churches th..yahMained 

led ami 


lom hlood,'" h 



leir soul, hut of their body too. 

ig not only to promote the health 

•1. T/ip effects of Unod cat 

comiiientaiois. The Hebrew writ 

7/g urc t/iow,i to he ihjs,cuUi, bud 


ioatliing, we might rather sa> a 

riters C(,nslantly and earnest, 

l>y tin 

n abherrence, of iJu 

y inculcate 

tliey regard as destructive both to body and mind. Tl 
as a most unwholesome article of diet, and as ind 
and vitiated state (<f body Some filte 

piaciiec, which 
"'V regard blood 

iK'iiig a "idss 


en centuries back, the T 

in its concise but emphatic manner, proclaimed — and, 

a I mud. 

I)eatcd old tenchin(T.a in I^.r....i 

it th 

en merely re- 

'■' ''^' 'J— Vi"e main cause 


SANATORY INSTTTUTrONS l„vi,„.e»on ,,;:■;:" '" """■ "'"""" « ••r.lH. ,.cMvi,.h 

□ «- J>tLIcll II ,c.(?nce !(» Itlls Sll il.'Cf nn,|.,. 1- • 

W.11 fon,i,l,.nr .nnhiplyin, .....ations, 1..^ ;';;.:"' '"""^ "'^^^"'^'- 
once tl.o.e uNjc-tion. urh ,.Ui,u rii: ^ ^ " '"'"i'"'" '" ^''^'^^ •''< 

f'^'lt.T linn to iM-...,.,„ nl.u ,,•.- n,-, »-"> ^^ I'eirloro \vo can done. 

-.,u, ..,,!., „.,,,;, ,,j-, ;;:;-- 

'^'>ve lor duin. Huh i« to .h..v ,ha, i,. „,, ,. ' '^. '"^"^ ■•"-" -'' 

'ey s throe proposi!ion>. "'''Htu.iu Di. l„vvri- 

'J'iie lu-t 'L'a!mii,|ic axiom nn,. toil, ua< tlm " i), > 

candid reader to Lc ih.,n -i . ^ ^'""' ^° •^^' 

"iiidica\n.iH.sue liave(]iintr,i ,1,,., i *"' tiie Tal- 

; tl>e ..,ood being i,i, J «/.«/...; J^S'.l^f': '^"'"^^'^ ^ 
ject.o speedy putrelaetion; and, eoi.e ue^^ ^ uTi^T u^ ^'"• 
vvholesome and best answer the- >„,.,. r > ' ''■'^' '""^ "'"«' 

tl.e blood has l,.en dr ^ j ^ ,""' "" '"''"'' ^-"^ ^^•''-" 

(he longest. ' '" '^'"''^"^''^ "^ ^-"i-ablencs for food 

Our seeondTahniKlic quotation uas, 'Mho rmin -. r ,., 

crimen,, and is very d,niet,l, ..f dige<,:„„ ^j ""'^ =' ^"■^" ^''"^^ """ 

>e r,.,uark.d that tln-i aln.ud o.,^;;J S ; ..^^ ^r^ '""• n'^ '"■^'' — '^■ 


prove fatal, pnrOciilarly l)ii!l's l-IooJ, which 
criminals hy the (Jroclc.s, " its ex( 
goslible by liic pducrsof tii 

was given, with (his 


view, t(t 

reine visciijid.- roriilc 

in^ it totnllv indi- 


e liiUTian .'^toniach. 




S T\ 


a houi of 

)X 1,1 

I'S fii ii: 

oo(l (luriM'f a t^acr 

.■ilcriiis i\raxWiius(lil). v 
iiaviii- pmpoHeiy (Jnink 

country, Cn-eco, to tlu' KiriT of 1 

I. ICC, III cnliT to moid 


'Ji'ctini^ liiN 

(Iocs not aiways jinnliico -iiiiilar cirrcts, hnt tii 

'"rsia. ■! IS fivio, the bloo.l of a 





ol llie (|uaruilv taken, tl 

niny bo owing vatlior U> 

nature : or its m: 

i;ii' '<> its not liv'ivii iiiiiii 

iiL'iiitv iiiav l)e !);i 

ctic su!istanc('s with 



!y roiiiilcrai ted 


may ne eatei'. ■ 

Otis in Its 
liy (lie otiier diot- 

10 third 

ainuidie axiom was, '• .Much blo-d. 

served to 


riKiit m mry 

■ird. 'J'bo-c nations which le^^d 
'C irmiirkably sulijeet to ,vr»/ f,„fic rfi 
ibing sudi tendiMiry to animal i' 


mucli scurvy' 


V iijv.n 

I, are ol)- 


and ifphysiriansbc 

eaten, o-^iu'clally m the holler '-l 
grosser and more indii:e>tib!( 
tendency to produ 
sest of all animrd 

n <:•, 

M';u when 


iniale<, it nuisi be acknowledged that the 
'<w(] must liave the greatest 

luices (> 


Po abstain th 

I'e sucti injurious eorise.juence^ ; and b!i 

e the mo't iieniic, 

as the i^ros- 




ere I ore f 



meat, trom w 


•en drai'ied, tVom 

uch the b 

whatever cnu<e t!i 

anunal, whet 


purposely : 


l.tlond has been retai 

'i' has not 
iicd in the 

irauiilinir or ofju 

more conducive to health then b 

i"wisi>. must 

'C much 

yieldm:.' to a luxu 

■ii> and vitiated 

taste, and adopting; a contrary practice. 

3 -ne r frets rf hl,>cd cnU»^ arc shon-n to U j>h ys^cal/y had hu nthc 
autl^nurs. Ti>e Abbe Fleury (M.urs des Israelite^) savsl^he u'^'Z 
were forbidden to eat blood or fat, both are /.udofd^,.^,,,, .. ...j „.^,,„,; 
stron, working people, as the Israelites, find less inconvenience 
from ,t than others, it was better to provide wholesome food for them 
3utce ,t was a nu.tterof option." Dr. Townley says. >> the divine BeinJ 
enjoined that annnals .lestined for f hhI should be killed with the .reate.^t 
,.oss,!e despatch their blood be poured upon the .round, and th^ea,^' 
of blood re .lously avoided ; and still more deservedly prohibits such 
sanguinary (ood Iron, its hanrfal n,fUa..,-r ,,,„. „„. dUpo.t.a,n, of tho.e 
whose vuiated appetites or brutal superstitions led them to indulge i„ 
gross and bloody repasts." For as has inen remarked -'all anmJl" 
t!K>t .ee upon blood, are obserwd to be much n.ore fJ^^^L 
other. X Bryson (Voyage, p. 77.) tells us that the men by eai^:: wl" 

* Dr. A. Plnrkf's rnnimrntnrv mi T ,.-,( ..,;: it \r • i ■ , 
the L;iw. „l- M„-,.s, vol. ::. art "-m;' ,,' ov, V '•--•^'•""H'> ■* i .•'iiin.,.nt„rir.s „n 
vol .2. •.';;. Ercyc.lVrth..artici;y>W. '"■''■'""" '^'"'"""'' ^'"^ ^"''"d 


t examined will, UanJour," ut my 

t I)i! inev'-: " !'■",■:! 

><di (;iiii It ur," vol. i; 

p 21. 






ihcy found raw, hrciimc lilllc brlicr than cannibals. * Further illustra- 
tion oftliis fact we tliiiik !;i:>y 1)0 found in Alexaniler Henry's 'i'ravcls 
llir()iii;li Canada and the Indian Tenitories. In tliat work it is s^lated that 
" nian-eatini.r was then, and always iiad heen, praetised anion^tlie Indian 
nations, lor the purpose of giving; t'leni courai^cfo attack, (m otiier words 
to tJicd //l'Mi(L) and resoUition to die, (in other words a l)ruti>li nidifj'crcnce 
todcatli. f This extract (for wiiich wc are indehted to Prie>t's Amer- 
ican /\ntii|uities,) sliows us that S(ivau,c$ at least couUl estimate the value 
of hhxid catioir. 1 hat nhinuitely it may insidiously <^:\\\\ irrouiid, and 
advance until me., indeed become little better than cannihah, we think 
is shown in tlie rase referred to hy Haron Ilumholdt in his peisonal 
narrative, lie says that '• in Jiigyi)!" onee, as our readers will please re- 
collect, the centre of refinement; here, "in tiie l.'Mi century, five 
or six hundred years atro, llie liabit of easing iiuman (lesli jiervadcd 
all (^lasses of society. JOxtraordinary snares were spread, for physicians 
in particular. 'J'hey were called to attend persons wlio jjrelended to be 
sick, hut who were only huni;ry, and it was not in order to he consulted 
but to he devoured." Micliaelis says, " dritdiinir of blood is certainly 
not a beconfuitr ceremony in religious worship. It is not a very refined 
cmtom,anA if often repealeil, it might \>vo\yM\ liahituatc a people, to 
cruelty and make them unfeeling with regard to bhx.d ; and certainly 
religion shouUl not give, nor even have the appearance of giving, any 
Buch direction to the manners of a nation. "J 

Having thus seen that the practice of blood-eating is one by no 
means commendable, or conducive to meyis sava in eorpore suno we 
proceed now to detail the various requirements and enactments laid 
down in the Jewish ritual code — the Talmud, iViaimonides and other 
rabbinical authorities — having reference to the slaughtering of animals, 
and abstinence fiom b'ood ; since they will best show with what reli- 
gious strictness and sedulous care Israelites are required to (and in fact 
do now re-illy) exhibit to remove the possibility of liicir eating pro- 
hibited blood. V\e ask the reailer's indulgence in that, luivby, we shall 
lia\e to extend con.-idei ably our remarks on this one sanatory Insti- 
tution of the Hebrews; but we think it li-ht so to do, and shall, on 
othe-r oceasi,,ris wh.-n we may have to elaborate, inaMinn h a.> in om 
introductory rmiarks we said that ai'n'r due altciilioii to the sacred 

her;,'.!-. tihoTl .\i'c..iuit .,f tliu Law.s utnl histitiitidiH of .M()-<c« p '.);» i,„t,. n,,,, 
u.rmluie ISln.S... c. ,s. .N. ■ .U„ M.irdMaa, Clao.u.un. .... .x, ,. Is5. Lip-uu 

1 o ft), 4i0. * ' 

t Kopnvitory, vol. 1 1, j)[), 'jci, '2C,2. 

t Midi.ielitf'd Cum neat.iiia, on liie Laws i,(^ ; vol. iii. p. 2a'J 



text we Ehould " offer such illustrations afforded both by Christian 
and Jewish writers as may be within our reach or memory, and ne- 
cessary to do full justice to our subject." And since we consider that 
the enactments alhuled to above, should be noticed as being Ultimately 
connected therewith: and that to the inquiring English reader 
they would prove neither uninteresting nor unacceptable" we venture 
now to exhibit what have been thought by many to demonstrate the 
superstition of the rabbinical Jew, and the trifling of the Talmud, but 
which, we honestly confess, we are blind enough not to perceive in 
any such light. And we think that even the scientific reader, whose 
religious convictions may be opposed to those of the people to whom 
these enactments are addressed, will candidly assert that they are by 
no means of a bad, but of a goo<l, healthy tendency, and are not to be 
despised. Indeed, many authorities high in the scientific world have 
already so pronounced, as we may perhaps have occasion to show 
hereafter. At present we would proceed with the task immediately 
before us. 

In the Mishna vhich is the text of the Talmud, there is a treatise 
called f^in Cholin i. e. of profane (slaughtering) thus styled in con- 
tradistinction to that treatise which discourses of C3<ty^p Kadashim 
1. e. of sacred (slaughtering) the former, with which w^e have now to' 
do, treating of the slaughtering of animals required for domestic or 
secukr purposes-the latter, of those devoted to sacrifice. In our ex- 
tracts from this Mishnic treatise, we shall avail ourselves of the 
translations and notes of the Rev. Messrs. D. A. De Sola, and Dr. M 
.1. Raphall, of Dr. Jost, and of the excellent Hebrew commentaries of 
R. Obadiah Bartenora, and Tosephet Vom Tob and also of the Meloh 
Caph Nachat appended to the Berlin edition of the Mishna (\ M 
■5593.) . V - • 

Thefirsf chapter ofthe treatise CAo/j«troatsofthepersons(|ualificd, the 
instrumentsusod,ai.(l the mode and ])lace of slaughtering. Wo shall add a 
few explanatory words within brackets. §1. All [who arc well acfuainted 
^vith the laws respecting slaugliterintr] are permitted to slaughter [animals 
allowed to be eaten,-no ,,riest is re.juired as in the case ^of sacrifices 1 
and the.r slaughtorin, ,s ra^i.r. [To convov what has been properly 
slau.duered, and may l,e lawfully eaten, we retain this rabbinical terra, oV 
use the EM;il,sh uo,d •',, roper."] Deaf and dumb or demented per- 
sons, or httie [yountr] .,nes are, however, excepted ; because 
they are liable to make mistakes in slaughterinir, 8cc.* • • • 
[The appou.tnu.nt in Jrwish communities of a sl.ocliet, or nuali- 

atJiJooo;!:;;::!^;;;::::; ii;^:^-"- ^^ p--^- -^ '-^ -n.d.rod ... ^^^ 





iVl..hna, and where private individuals do n.n perform .h. r. n 

..o.«.„,h ,,,,,,. , ,„, „ ^^,^^^^,^ ,„„„.r;,;";: t; : 

.on. ri„. ,s almost u„, .he case, since the due discha™ of hi, 
Ju.,e, re<,„,re» „,ucl, ,i„,e, l,„ no. only ,o .ec tl,a, ,l,o alal o 

food ■ hn, „f ,!,■ ""I'"""! '"""I')."'!."- ran pronounce Ihem fit for 
ood , but of tins mote Itereafier. The second section of cliante,,,e siangl.teting sl.all be „erfor,ned with .sba,„ If 
only, prolnbnmg ,bo«; wl.ici, are at all blunt or ja,„od •• becau ." d ," 
do not cut but strangle," and ,l,ey .bercfore no, ^ ly i„„ r.^^ 'ij 
."...ecessary pain upon tl,o animal, but prevent „,. Vcc flJfU^ 
and consequently, as ,s known, c.™ „^c« ,;„. ,^„,, ,,„L/,,i -.JZt, 
o the propriety and value of tins enactntcnt of .be J iTna 
and proo ,|,a, „, as .v.-ll as d.osc presetdly, are ., 'j a"d 
well ,o secure „/„*,»«,, y„l,lu, „,„„, more espceb lly >vi h 
re lerence .o ,bc fiowing of d,e blood fr„„, „,e a.umal .ve flnd'sup d 

\\'' °';'^7"''J-' "' '("""'•l ab»ve, b„. by d>a. Ingl, au.i.o ity the 
celebrated Dr. Andrew Duncan, late Professor of Medictl Juri ^^0 
,n the Umversuy of Edinburgh. He says, " Tke „W. of klZla, 
'cnivUrahle effect on Uk flesh of the animal ■ ■ Th7 
.ode of tilhng an,mals in .li^ kin jom is .;7L, .Jo^rZT 


fought do.™ by the firs, bio.v, nnd"'.itXe.iti!; -s";.',;:'.;::::; tz 

tain , and il tiie anima be not vcrv well spp,..-..-! .„ ■ i . 7 

r 1 o "ui. n.1^ wLi] secured, acculents mnv hinT-.£.r> 

Lord Somerville. therefore endeavoured to introduce t i i , To; 
P.h.ngor laying cattle by dividing the spinal marro.- abo e" ri,in 
oMhe phrenic nerves, as is commonly practised in D-u-Inn T^ 

:t:ssrs::rif::;;;r':"''' -^ 

AUl,^.. \ .1 . ^'^'^ ' ""-" c^t "><-' arteries above the heart + 

Although the operation of pithing i. „.,t so ditr.cult, but that it nnv afte! 

...od,a„d made„d,.,o„ that ,l,epri.o^.a::.t;.::;;,7:;;;::':;::;:, 

t ReflectioTi^ on n.r> <^i .. , ,. . 

s. A, 8vo,, Lt-udouriSOirirgr' ""' '""^ ^'""'^ ''*"''"'"'• ■"> <'^''" J^*--k'OU, Esq., F. 



"f Ijeing knockod ,lown. still pithing is not hrcoming general in Ens- 
land. Tlu.s may he partly ou ing to prejudice ; but we liave been told 
that the flesh of the cattle killed in this way in Portugal is vcrij dark,^m\ 
f'ccomcs soon putrid, Y^Toh7ih\y from the animal >wt bleeding well, in con- 
sequence of the action of the heart being interrupted before the vessels 
of the neck are divided. It therefore becomes preferable to bleed the 
animal to death directly, as is practised by the Jeicisli butchers. The 
Mosaic law so strictly prohibits the eating of blood that the Talmud con- 
tains a body of regulations concerning the killing of animals ; and the 
Jews as a poim of religion will not eat the flesh of any a.iimal not killed 
by a butcTior of their own persuasion. Tiieir method is to tie all the 
four feet of the animal together, bring it to the ground, nnd turning its 
head back, to cut the throat at once down lo the bone with a long, very- 
sharp, but not pointed knife, dividing all the large vessels of tht^neck. 
In this way the blood is discharged (]iiickly and completely. The effect 
is indeed said to be so very obvious, that some Christians will cat no meat 
but what has been killed by a Jew butcher." Dr. Duncan further 
remarks, " Domestic birds in general arc killed in a very unskilful and 
barbarous manner," and after detailing those methods, his further remarks 
tend to show that those laid down and required by the Mishna is 
the most merciful, and in evLiy way the best. But for these details we 
must refer the reader to the learned writer himself.' We have made 
the above lengthy extract from him because it conveys our own 
convictions, and in language preferable to our own, since it furnishes the 
unbiassed testimony to the wisdom and principles of the direction? for 
slaughtering given by the Mishna of one highly esteemed in the scienti- 
fic world ; one, also, who, if he have a religious leaning at all in what he 
writes, cannot certainly be suspected of its being towards the riturl of 
the Jews, Founded upon the same reasons, and having the same 
object are the following live traditional rules which are to be 
strictly observed in killing cattle or fowl, or they become Pasool, 
I. c, unlawful to be used for food. In slaughtering there must not 
be 1st, n"ntt» i. c. delay— &?. when a person cuts a little of the throat of the 
animal, then stops, and cuts auain, ana continues in the same manner til! 
the act of killing is completetl. 'Jnd. nom i. e. pessure ,— when the cut- 
ting was eflccted by pressure only, without passing the knife to and fro 
"ti the animals throat ; or cutting ofl' the head or tubes by a siii-Io stroke, 
using the knife like a hatchet or sword. 3nl. m'?n /. e. concealment, 
—when- the knife was covered with any thing; for instance, if it was 
'hovered or hidden by the wool of the animal, or by a cloth, or that it 

• !«ee F.ncycloiKi'dia Britriinica .■\rt. Food. 





was passed Mwe.n the tubes, and the killing completed by cuttin. .1. . 

more deta,lo,l particulars ll,e Hebro.v rcaJer i. referrcdTo t T / , 
Treatise CM,„ p. a., and Mai„,„„i.lo. chap, i . ThmJI " T, ' 

Casher. • • Cbapter f rr\vl " "' ^-knv the throat i. 

. I 1 ■ '--'lapter n., § 1. When one of the nine^ r; » *i 

trachea] has i,een cut throucrh in kiihng fowl and bo rtL T ^l . 

.Psophagus] in killing cattle ^hev .re clZn. f ''"''^' ""'^ 


act of slaughtering with the intention of cu tinrZu hlZT"" .^'" 

^^ the s.des orth^rit ioJizr::^:^^" ^:- r ''-■ -- the .onclnding ..uirements of th.s sectt. ' ri'^r^o' 

the trachea] ,s cnt through in fowl, and one and a-half f/T l! S 
and half of the esophagus] in caUle, it is unf.t " b if^ th; T"'"' 
of one tube iscut through in fowl and the . ea ; na t If h.f '"" 
tie, it is Cash6r.'' ^ ^ ^ °^ ^^^ ^^^^ '" cat- 

«cM:;i:re:'u;-.f;r;i"'- "r-^"-:^™' ^- ">» .-:* 

quirements of h^ M k " '" P""""''"' Jir^H™' and re- 

Cher matters connected ^i.h nrl „ . « T„,r """"'"^ 

-*s »n.a„.s s„eh a ..pL, and^tl Inf ^'r^ltrl^- 

*Vi(ic Dagc 2G 

tVide Vol. 2. ^^, 5, ,,. ,_ ^^^^^. ^ ^^ ^^^^.^^ ^^^^ 



MaimoniJes writes, ^^ 1— He who wilfully eats of blood of [the 
•luantity of] an olive, i-curs the penalty of sxcision, [Lev. vii. 26-27] 
but if through error, he becomes liable to the bringing of an appointed 
sin offering. The law explains that he becomes not liable but for all 
blood of beasts [ wild and domestic] and of fowl, whether clean or un- 
clean, as it is said, "And all blood shall you not eat in all your 
habitations, whether of fowl or of beast (behemah). Wild animals are 
included here in the term « behemah,' for we find it elsewhere said 
[Deut. xiv. i-o] These are the beasts (habehemah) which ye may eat, 
the ox, &c., the hart and the roebuck &.c., b'lt to the blood offish, locusts^ 
insects and the like, the above law applies not ; wherefore the blood 
of fish locusts, &c., which are clean is permitted. * • * But of those 
which are unclean it is forbidden, because it forms the main substance of 
their body ; and it is with their flesh as with the fat of the unclean 
beast. § 2. Human blood is prohibited from the authority of the 
Scribes ; an infringement of thi^ prohibition subjects the offender to 
the flogging of rebellion-. § 3. The penalty of excision applies only 
to that blood which issues at the time of slaughtering, or drawn while 
It yet retains its red particles ; to that blood which has entered the 
heart, and to that which results from phlebotomy, and yet issues forth ; 
but that which issues at the beginning of the bleeding, and that which 
appears when the flow begins to cease, these do not cause the penalty 
of excision, but are in this respect like the blood of members, since 
that which flowed through the bleeding, was the vital blood. § 4. The 
substantial blood and blood of the members, such as of the spleen, 
kidneys, &c., of eggs, and that found in the heart at the 
time of slaughtering, as also blood found in the liver, does not create 
the penalty of excision, and he who eats thereof, even a quantity equal 
to an olive, incurs according to the divins law the penalty of castigation, 
*As emphatically exhibiting the extreme care and «;rupulo«snc93 to be em- 
ployed by Jews ,n refraining from blood-eating, we might have quoted above 
the lollowmg words of Maimon,de> in the sam. paragraph,-- • but to eat the' 
blood from the teeth (gums,) is of course not preventible ; thus, if ho bites into a 
piece of bread an,l observes there blood (from the gums) he cuts avvav that part 
and afterwards eats." writes Maimonidc Another celebrated Je;ish Doctor 
Menasseh 1 en Israel, whilst engaged m the days of Cromwell to secure the return 
01 h.s people to England, in adverting to the ignorant and foimic pn^ucUce which 
had been raised against them fui '• using human blcx.d to make their Pa-ssovcr 
eakes, says ( Vnulicia. Jud.Porum seel. See Samuels, "Jerusalem," bv Mendelsohn 
vol 1 p. 5.) " And more than tills, if they find one drop of blood in' an egr. thev 
the Jews) .t away as prohibited: an.l if in eating a piece of bread, it happen, 
to touch any blood drawn from the teeth or g.jnis it n^,,..* }^ -.,.„,! ^ . . _!. ^ 

ironi the said blood, as it evidently appear, from 'jShulchan Aruch uid o^^hiZ 
book, Ac. '"■'^^ 



of any animal is to bo 1.; .^ "^ " ^""'"^ ^"""^ '" ^''« "t^'us 

the bLd foun in t/, n^' " ''^ '^"^'^ "^ -« ^-' therefore 
rest of its blood s to b. T TT '^" ^'"'"^ ^^ ^''^'^'-' l>"' the 
pavticular dire i L'^re .T;: v' T ^'\''^^' ^^ '"^'"^-«- ^" ^ « 
heart, which, bein. so to soeakth. ??''"= ''' "'^'^^ ^^°°^ ^he 
mansioninwl^ichit°resl?^ ' blood-pump of the wondrous 

are given ciirrc'r t ;zr;:;' rr'rr '^^^^^'^"^- ^" ^ ^ 

it may escape freelv and n^^lj ^ "°^ '^''^"' ""^ ^'''''' '' that 

Duncan above ciuoted -in.l t. ''■J' ''^ ^^'^I'led by reference to Doctor 

auuvc quoted, and to other writers S in i\t„ * 
cons dered as frep f^T, ki j , ;*"tere. ^^ Jo. Meat cannot be 

pressed aftj 're^rioTin^l:: f ^xlr:,'? '''' f''' ^"^ -' 
from the meat, which is th^n to e "are^Hv at 1""', '"' '^ '"^" 
salt fur a time (not less^ th.n i)Z ''"'^^""y^^^'^'^' ^^^ ^^ to remain in 

an hour to an hour is tt ,ilt ^ ""^' ^"""'^ 

-^rasitistoleZZllZetr "Z^"'^' tamilies] after- 
when it is to be nl^rVl '^^"'^ '""^ ^''«°» '* is clear, 

process sllloriytcarLTi^'^'^'r ''J' ^ ''' ^'' '^''^ 
that the blood escape and then with'" , ""^^ ^""^"'^^^'^ ^« 

imbibed in the feshbntl '^^^'-'^e salt, .ince lino becomes 

in ine Kesli, but does not extract the blood " 
Were it consistent with our limif^ n,, i 

1° the books already mentioned for further de.»il,. p„ 

• - - ■..„„, o,.us our remarks on the prohibition of blood to a 



I Ode. Tliese few considerations however, we would urge in conclu- 
sion—The Hebrew people for thouaands of years, even before those 
-lorious ihys wiien their great Moses lived and moved among them 
have been in a most remarkably scrupulous manner observant'of this 
prohibition. They have regarded the eatingof blood aa an abomination, 
and as a loathsome practice; us a practice, which, if much indulged in, 
would cause them to think lightly even of the blood cf their fellow-men. 
And what, to them, have been the results of this, nationally, and after 
so very long a space of time ?_for it is only by referring to them as a 
nation, and to the longest period to which we can look back, that the 
question ought to refer, and that we ought to judge it. In the re- 
marks we have made upon this sanatory law, as it undoubtedly is, of 
the Hebrews, we have deemed it proper briefly to show that scientific 
writers of the highest reputation have proved, that the wholesomenesa 
ot unimal food has much to do with the extraction or non-extraction of 
the vital stream, and that, as a consequence, our own health is, in no 
inconsiderable degree, dependant thereupon. Let us now ask, whether 
their abstinence from blood through agus has at all made the Hebrews 
physically speaking, a less healthy or favored people than those who 
do not 80 abstain, and whether they do not rather present the most 
powerful and conclusive testimony in support of those writers who 
contend for the utility and importance of the prohibition— writers 
whose humble disciple, apart from our peculiar religious convictions, 
we profess to be. These queries we make without stopping to insist 
upon their comparative exemption from that class of diseases from 
which, they ought, as a consequence of their abstinence, to be free, 
but to which those who unreservedly indulge in such gross indigesti- 
ble nutriment should be subject; nor do we stop to insis: upon the 
probability of their being less likely to become legitimate objects for 
the attacks of epidemics, &c., than those who are less careful than 
they in this regard, and in the general healthiness of their animal food; 
but we go on to remark, that although our limits as well as our in- 
clination, have caused us to confine the number of our references and 
authorities, still, we think we have adduced sufficient respectable testi- 
mony to show, that blood-eating exercises a decidedly " baneful in- 
fluence on the disposition^' and minds of men. Christian writers 
have uniformly endeavored to show— with what success we need not 
here inquire, that the rabbinical tradition^ are but little older than 
Christianity. Supposing this to be the case, and confining our re- 
trospective view of the mental condition of the Hebrew nr-nr.!." 
to nineteen centuries, let us ask, and let the reader decide' inVll 
-andor, whether that, by aU acknowledged, wondrous activity and 



elasticity of intellect which has ever characterised them; which has 
enabled them, under God, to bear up against persecution the most in- 
tense, and shiuj^hter the most bloody ; to withstand like an impreg- 
nable fortress, those destructive causes and events which have swept 
away nations more numerous, more powerful, and in every way more 
prosperous than they— have swept them away so that scarcely a ves- 
tige remains of them;— let us ask, whether this, and their equally ac- 
knowledged exemption from the commission of those fearful deeds of 
violence and bloodshed, which are but too fre(iuently the result of an 
artificially-formed brutish organisation and instincts; of a superinduced 
animalism, which is but too surely the ofFsprinL' of unrestrained indul- 
gence in matters dietetic; whether these facts prove that the prohi- 
bition of blood and other articles of diet has acted injuriously to 
them, or whether th.-y do not present testimony valuable and con- 
clusive for those advocates of total abstinence from blood-eating who 
show that the mind, equally with the body, must at last suffer from 
the practice. We humbly cl lim for these questions the same indulgent 
and serious consideration* which tliinking and good men who are well- 
wishers of their fi'llows have very properly extemled lo that great moral 
movement— the total abstinence from intoxicating drinks. The percep- 
tive faculties may become clouded, men may " become drunken with 
blood-drinking" also, saith the prophet ; and were the ill effects of the 
latter so immediately perceivable, and its opponents as numerous, and as 
zealous, as are the advocates of the former movement, then would there 

* Wo Lave seen with as much surprisr as regret, that an ablo writer should des- 
cend to treat lightly a question which has hail for its supporters so majiy master 
minds — advt)cates as pious and aniiahlo as they were luarntd ; of course we can 
have but little to say to remarks conceived in such a spirit, but this much we would 
observe. To select the Canadian luihitants with whose unrestrained addiction to 
blood-eating vre are sutiiciently acquainted, as a proof of the noninjuriousncss of the 
practice, we deem singuhirly unfortunate, though not fur our assertion above made 
with reference to its i ffects. mentally. We only speak, as we can only speak, be it 
remembered, of the testimony afforded by nations after the lajjse of a long period of 
time, say of centuries, and thus it will be perceived that we only speak of blood- 
eating as being an element — how powerful, who shall say when it is 30 announced 
and condemned by inspiration— of decay and destruction in a nation. With indi- 
vidual cases the question has nothing to do— we will not, nor did wo ever maintain 
that with reference to these, the practice is a bad one; but to return. The Canadian 
h<ibltanis are doubtless, a worthy, happy, contented, ami so far as creature com- 
forts, and, perhaps, bu-incss transactions, are concerned, an acufe people, yet 
few would charge them with too much intellectuality, enterprise, or with a too 
free spirit of inquiry either in matters spiritual or secular. Of course with other 

^i;_«-, i.',...» ; ! ..-. -i;-.,4 -n.'';-;2.'' "r" P.lV.^!' ^J*!I-^f'^ III"!;! fli'tTlCU'"^. f*ill!i*.Iltionil S?.*">ft- 

nativn.3 X-Iiv "C *i*"j' ^'"f UIIU i::'-:'_TM r*.; *. , •■•• - ■ ••■ ^' •••-•• ■ •; - -- — — —..-.. 

cially, to counteract this serious error in diet ; just as it has been shown other dietetic 
substances may counteract the ill effects of eating blood, in the iudividual system. 


.louMlrssly oxist in many m.-n's mind, tliosamc anflpatl.y,t the one 
U8Mg.., a.> fur the abuse ..f the other. 15ut be ihi. a.s it may. thi.s mm.cI. ap- 
|.earsevulent and Hure to us with refer, nee to the i.lea. and .sentiments uf 
the peup! ; u iiom the qur^ti..,, at pre-ent m<,-t eotieern.. We b.lieve it 
unq,ie.sti.,nahh. that iirespeetive of ti,e in iip.rabh. n hj^iuu, ..Ij.etions 
they have to hh o.) eatings 'he M.nvielion i. .hvply rooted and gem rally 
felt amon- all iMuelit.N, that woaM they nut snap asunder one of the most 
powerhd links \u national union and preservation, hut would they 
maintain the undying, vi^^or ol' their raee-uould thev their 
bodies tron, ;;ro.s ..eorbutie humors and alleetions, and their minda 
from those passions and t-ndeneie.s svhieh weaken what is .strong de- 
press uhat is e.xalted, d,-rade what is .h^vated, and Lrntali.-e what is 
divine -then thry must not lightly esteem, but strictly and religiously 
observe and resp.rt iiiL Puoaim liON or Bi.ooi.. 



What has just been remarked as to the convietions and usages of 
the Hebrew p.ople with reference to the Prohibition of Blood, mainly 
applies to tie ir ab-tinenee from the flesh of sueh animals as are pro- 
nounml by the Seriptuies and their ritual code to be «oa (tameh) 
unclean, niD« (assur) piohibited, or nanu (terefa) torn. As will be 
presently seen, their and authoritative writings aserib- moral 
as well as hygienic, reasons for the Mosaic <listinction'of animals and 
for the institution of those directions and enaetme-nts which lead t'hem 
to reject as impure and unhealthy, such species of animal food as are 
commonly and unhesitatingly received by other nations, as ordinary 
and acceptable artides of dia. We have alrea<iv made .light allusion 
to the fact, that as early as the days of Noah, a distinction of " clean 
beasts and '"'.'asts which are not clean"* was made and known. But 

• "A romarkaUe in4.we of oir.umlocurion," .ay. Raphall. "ciu.,! .as a proof of 
the extreme pur.ty of nuu,l of .he uutho,, .-ho ,.,, „,,,, „,,,,, ..J^j^ ^^ 
avoul say.n, .,,, ^ which ,n Ua- If.!...., ,lo., uut M.aply expre.. t/u negation 
^,^.. as ,lo ,l,e con..po,uli„, ...ative. i„ oUut,../ vi. : the Greek 
aU^>o, the L,U,n un,.r., the French ;...„^, the,, i.n.un,., tUe 
lUhan ..«...A-, he (,,n:M, ..,•■;„, the S, orcn, ,he lOan.h o^M the 
Li^l.h the Pol.h ..>,„.., .,e . but has a positive au.nnn,. the oountor- 
s use of n.... (tehon.h) <-/..,, and the extreme cou.Uer-sen.. of ...„ ,,u,o.h) ,ol, ; 

arid denote, a m,„-.l .. ,.,,1 ^s phy-ieal state, which ia anv other I... ,.,L ii 

want uii iiuiiiui^njus single Word to oxpre.-s." ' = -= . 



WO .hnll n.,f Htop n.Av to ,li..nMs M nil vrry .Ibafahl.. q-u-iion, 
« lu-tli-r tlir ,li .ti-,otion nf „niM,nU h-rr. n f-rr,..! t„, \. i.l,.„,i,.:,l uiil. t!,nt 

'"'*''" '" ''"^''* '• ""•' i» ■-<•. t'-i-K know,, nn-l ..h.^Tv. .1, ,,,mlly 

with fli.. pr..hil,itin„ fo,.„tl.l.,o,l, hy tl.,- N,.arl,i,l,r,->v!...|l,or th-MMw,, 
Imws ,,,n mm- j„y Hum to , f|„.,- thnn .1, wi-h atf.ntion n,,.! ..(.^(.rvMrnv 
-wl..f I.. ■• tl... t-r„H '• .•l,.;,n",,n,l " un.'!,..u." pCt .i,„,>lv ,„„1 r-.-p.-rtiv,-' 
ly t.. tl...... w!,icl, u, r- u-o.l or r.j.vtcl (V,- s:..Ti!i.Ts or 

wli.-tlHT, ,w J:.I,M soo.ns to tl,inkt th- .listincti..n onlv Convys that 
bftoiT the,l,.|„.^..., tho fl.Mh of animals vva. n,nvn-t..,l into food ;-f!„..o 
bein;..p..rha|w p.uvly ti,colotn-al .p„..tioMS wliirh, houvver intrrominp 
we mny „.,, stop h.-n-, to .nt, rtain.j W.- m. r.-lv p ,nin,l .,„r .vad-rs tliai 
.n a.iJil.on to ll,„ ,ii-tin.-tiMn, a huV.wr one is ma-l. (eh. viii v 2')) with to f.wls, ami will proc.o.l with them to th^ ..|,.v',.nth dK.pler 
of Lrv.t.o,,. wh,T.> u-e fin.l not only irrn-ral ruU-s of .iiscrimination laid 
..own, l,„r ..I<n a ratal.r,,,,. .i,,.„ „f variotrs oviparous and si^ipamus 
croatnnH, torlndd-n to I<ra.l ll,ron;jhout their -uuratio.,.. Thii c-hnp- 
f.M- w,. propo.,. to . xa.nin.- at Im-th, onrself of M,d, ,.xp,„itions 
""d .llu.traf or,s a^ in th« fir-t place, th. Ild.revvs thms-ivv. alio, d ns ; 
1 S'coriillv. (.!' ..iifli .1-- ni-.> .......i: 1 • . /-«. 

'U'li as arc supp 

Clin-'tj ,n ( o:mmn':itors. 



- ' "" ■^■'I'l' •• i> vviin-i-i .n ( o:mmn':itors. 

And ,n this ..„„rs.., our attrntion will he n, erssarily diart.'d anion- 

others to the following imp(jrtant points:— 

hrst, rii- .jjfnera! dirci'tions for di«icrimination Mipplicrl ; 

S.condly. The n-;a,..n.d;,tnre of the animals and natnre; and 

Thirdly. Tiicir prohibition ; having nfenmce n. authority and r. asoii. 

llu' .•hapt.r cu wiih the I^^v uf di-criminatiun respeetin- 

* ^Ve learn thu Xuh •■ tv.k of ovory c-I,.an bca.t and of evo.y .ban 
f.wl, and ofl> :v,l t.aat olleun,;, .n th. uK.,-." Ti,i. o.r.un.tancc has uA t„ do 
wth the or,„.,a „f ,1,. „pi„.„„ ,,,p..t,M,^ th,. u-c. and „u.anin« of ,1,. tenn ••dean" 
as apphed thus early to animals, tiu.u.h n woul.l < to furn.d. a powerful ar.^u- 
ment_aym..t the a.-ampno,, that it to saeh anin.ds only asVere a,ed for 
^acnfces ; Hme from this pa.-snge w.- are^t obli^anl to c.Mclu.le that the di.- 
tmchoawas known to Noah, he made h.s sacritiee, tor ^^ hi.h he «.V.W. 
Hubpson (Apud De Sola and RaphaU's Translation of the Scripture.) seems 
to .n. ,a,e io (la. opinion, when he sa>, : " It is natural to make a distinction between 
annuals proper to bo offered as a ^aentiee to the Deity, and ,-ueh a. ate ,m,,ro,,er 
for that purpose, inclu.lin^- all that are carnivorous. Tins distinction we find esta- 
bushel am(jn:,' al! ancient nation,." 

+ See bis" Biblical Archu.Jogv" g 136, p. 117, Ed. Andovcr, 1S27. 

t IVrba|.s Radu-s gloss on Uen. vii, 2, maybe considered as euunciutorv of 
Jewish tradition and opiniou on this question. On th.. words" of all clean bel.(s" 
he says, n.^n n, ..u,. ,3,,, .,,.,„■, ^,,^.^ ^^.^.^ ^^.^^^ „ .^,,^^^ .^^ ^^^.^^^^ ^^^ 

hereafter to be con .dered clean by all Israel. Ileuce we learn, that the i:ternal taught 
the law to .v,.h, ,. e. anti.ap.Uc 1 to him a sub-.^ueut revelation to Moses 




leasts. (Verse 1) "The FOtermil puke unto Moses and unto Aaron, 
suylivr untn tliem, V. 2. SiR-uk unto tlie < luldrfn oflsrael saying, Tl>eaa 
an- the beasi- • which ye may eut IVom [among] all the beasts that aro 
on th„ caiili. V ;;. Whatever partetli t!ie hoof and is cloven r.)oted 
unU chevvetli the end ainon-; the Ixasts, tluit may ye eat. V. 4. Ne' er- 
tlK; ihese may ye not eat. ol' them that chew the cud or of them 
that divide the hoof; the camel, ^c."' Here, follows an enumeration of 
various ih-asts to he nolieed h ruafter ; we proceed to the 9th verse 
which contains the distinctive signs oi' permitted tishea. '< These may 
yo eat of all tiiat are in the waters; whatsoever hath fins and scales 
in the waters, in the sea and in the rivers, them may ye eat. V. 10. 
And all that have not fms not scales in the seas and in the rivers, of all 
that move in the w.iters, and of any livinpr tiling which is in the waters; 
they fhall he an aliomination nnto yon.'' This much of the distinctive 
eigiis of f)crmiiled and proliibiteil fi.-hes. For birds there are no distinctive 
signs given; hut we are told, V. 'JO, " all fowls that creep going upon all 
four, shall he an abomination unto you. Yet, these may ye eat, of every 
flying, creeping thing that goeth upon all four which have legs al)ove 
their teet <" leap withal upon ihe enrtli ; even the.o of them ye may eat, 
theiocuM, cvc., V. 23. uul all other flymg, creeping things, which have 
four feet shall he an abomination unto you.'' In verse 27, we find 
further that, " whosoever goeth u;»on his paws among all manner of 
beasts that go on all four, those are unclean unto you, 8tc." Sucii are 
the general rules for discrimination, supplied us by the Scriptures. And 
Ijefure giving a closer attention to them, it becomes us to admit w;th 
Fleury, that it was not peculiar to the Hebrews, to abstain from certain 
animals out of a religious pritci[)le, for the neighbouring people did the 
^aIne. Neither the f^yrians nor tiie Egyptians eat any fish ; and some 
have thought it was super^^tition, thit made the ancient Creeks not eat it. 
The Egyptians of Thebes, would eat no mutton, bemuse they worshipped 
Ammon imder the sliape of a ram,t but they killed goals. In other 
plaees, they abstained from goats flesh, and sacrificed sheep. The Egyp- 
tian priests used no meat nor Jiink imported fiom foreign countries,! 
and as to the product of their own, besides, they abstained from 
beasts that have a round foot, or divided into several toes, or tliat have 
no horns, and birds that live upon flesh. Many would eat nothing that 
had life; and in the times of their puiificatiou, they would not touch so 
mucli as eggs, herbs, or garden stufT. None of the Egyptians would eat 

* From the wnrdini; of this tfxt, whirh i^ strictly in the present tense, sin- 
guliir number, and means literally, '• This is the living creature" or beast, RasUi 
says that Moses exhibited to the p.oplo all the various creatures he mentionii'. 

i TT.i-..,! 

♦ T> I 



beans.* They accounted swino unclean ; whoever touched oner, 
though in pasj^ing by, washed hiniwelC and his ch)tlie3. Socrates, in his 
commonwenllh, reckons eating swine's fle.>h among the superfluous 
things iniroduced by luxury.f Every one knows that the Indian 
Brahmins, still, neither eat nor kill any sort of animal ; and it is certain 
they have not done it for more ihan two thousand years. 

But if there be nothintr peculiar in the Israelites, at the command of 
Moses, abstaining from the flesh of certain animals from reliL'ious motives 
there is yet that which we shall find original, w^se and t^alutary in this 
Mosaic prohibition. \Vc ouL'ht not to commence any such investigation, 
however, until, in accordance with tlie advice which the learned 
Mendelssohn gives, we first fix the coirect sense of some of the most 
important terms connected with our present subject, and which to avoid 
misconception and confusion, we shall endeavor to ascertain ; yet, as 
some may regard sucli inquiries, which will be almost exclusively philo- 
logical, as neither necessary nor interesting; we will present them in the 
form of notes, to be read or to be passed over at pleasure, for that which 
they may regard as having more to do with the main subject.' 

• Herod, ii. 
t Plato ii Rej% 

X n<n C/if(^a and n-:n3 Behemali, In vtTse 2 of the 1 Ith chapter of Leviticus, 
the Anglican traiislatioii rt'iuiois Zut hachinjah Ijy '■ Tiicso are fr beasts" 
Behemah.'m the same verse, is also traiislaleil, "beasts." Tlie S]iaiiisli Jewish 
♦ranslators, .Meriasseh Ben Israel, Serrano, FernanJes aii^l Diaz, translate hachayah, 
we think with better taste, by animales and hphcmah hy quailrnpfa. I)e Reyna, 
however, generally so correct, here renders botli hy animales. IMencielssohn's Ger- 
man Jewish ti an>hiUon has re>| ectively l/ticir and thinr.n, which, accoidiiig t» 
Weber, nuiy mean either uniiaul. hccst. or (juailyupcil ; and so has tlie German 
Christian tiaiulators. But the Targum of Onkelos has for tlic first wn-n ; (cliayta) 
for tlie second Ki-y^ (heiiniva.) All leixicograjjhers of note agree in deriving it 
from the root rrn (chayoli) to live. Among them, R. David Kiiiichi (Shoiashim). 
So also Furst, who says it means quidquiil vlvit , animal, dc fciis iJuti^siiiium ; 
60 too. Gesenius, who exjilains it as implying the beasts of the held, often opposed 
to tame aninials(hi'liemah) Gen. 1.21, hut sometimes inclutling them, Le\. 11.2. 
So Newman. Leigh, in liis learned " Gritica Sacra"' and his Freiicli trunslat'^r 
DeVVolzogue, are of the same opinion. But Parkhurst, perhaps more correctly, 
thinks tiic ju-imaiy meaning of the loot lo denote y^'o;-, power; he says as the 
noun it includes birds, beasts and reptjles, Gen. viii. 17, exclusive ol lish and 
fowl, (jcn. L 28, but frecpieiitly a wild beast as beinj; mor ■ gorous and lively 
than the lame species, (.en. i. 2,3. Tbe Anich from the Gemara of Cholin 
shows us (as dill Mainionidrs in the extract elsewliere taken from him) that 
rhnyith is sometimes inchidf d in the t'vm /if/ifm'//; and vice wrw^i, hil.nnch in 
the term rhaijii/i. And Ra-hi, in his comment on tliis verse, calls our attention 
to the same lacl. In the Hebrew commentary to that edition of the Pentaieuch, 
known as Mendlessohn's* we find the following remarks by that able gram- 

•Ed. Berlin, i^.V^. 



The rosiilt of such a critical examination of tiie text would be to 
t-stubli.-,ii, first, us regards beauts, that all which possess huol's that are 
cloven 01- bifurcated, tiiat is, whirl, are ci.-ai ly and unnjistakabiy divided 
into twu i'urts or hoots, and wiii>h alsu uud at tiie same time, chew 
the cud, or ruminate, are to be mvounted as clean and proper for food; 

:ii:uidn lints Wessely. ••The won! chaij.i includes iill species (i,'ener;i) man, 
beast, f.r.vl uiid reptile ; sinceull tli.'s.' j,o-.r>._. a iiviii- beiu- (i;<le,-,ii cliaya;. In proof 
of this we fiiid Gen. i. ■ Let th« earth hriiei forth ev.-ry living' cicalure (nel'esh 
chaya) after its kind, beasts, rqitles and thi; beasts of the earth, after its kind.' 
The first (mfesh rhaija) is the general expression; ' beasts, reptiles, and beasts of 
theeartli' is the particularisation tliereof. The meaning of the text here, then, is 
' This is tin' living cri.'ature which you may eat of all crealures having ,i living bciri" 
or •" In the derivatiim of ^y(//,v;i,/'/, the Helirew giaiumarians concur, also 
referring it to th(> Arabic, or rather Ethioi)ic /(((Am, which means to be silent, dumb. 
It occurs not as a verb in Hebrew. Asa noun Furst says it means " hestin ilomcstica 
quae opjionitnr fcrw vhAy.i jumrntn. i^rrr^-c? et omiie umnino ilomcslicum pecus." Ac- 
cording to David Levy, Gesenius and .Newman, it denotes tame cattle if in opposition 
to chaya ; and Iar<jc catlU- wlien in opposition to iniknch. (small cattle); Parkhurst 
gives its meanings L— Any brute, opposed to man. 2.— Any terrestrial quadruped, 
viviparotis and o- some size. 3.— A tame animal. Raphall says " In the Hebrew, 
" behemah" is used for dompslic animal, and •' chayah" wild animal. Some, 
however, are of opinion that all herbivorous animals, whether domestic or wild, are 
called "behemah," and that all carnivorous animals are designated by "chayah," Men- 
delssohn. We give the comment in .Alcndlessolin's Pentateuch (by Herts Wessely) 
on the word occurring Lev. xi., "All living creatures are included in the terra 
Tiffps/i chaya. ev(<n man, since it is said man became a ncfesh chaya or living 
beinir. Wheivtore, in speaking of the wild beasts of the forest, &c., an adjective, 
predicate or altnbule is to be used. Thus we say, chaya ran'^ak evil or ferocious 
beast, as Jacob in Gen. 37, sorkayat hasa-leh field-heasl. Lev. xxvi. ; so too chayat 
haarc!-. beasts of the earth Gen. i. ; chuyat yan^ar -beasts, Isa. 2C. The 
term is o-^pecjally applied to ferocious predatory creatures because of their e.vtreme 
strength and vigor, while domestic animals are ternitd " behemali."' Be it known 
also that •• beliemiiii" (is a conim.iii noun, and) i.^clMdes all the species of animals 
walking earth, man excepted ; as we liiui in I'salm xxxvi., ■• .Man and beasts (be- 
hemah) uilt thou save, (), Lord,"' where it includes wild and domestic creatures ; so 
also in 1 Saniujl. ch. xvii. •• the fowl of lieaven, aud beasts (bfliem.di) of the field, 
&e.,&c." The above shows us, ,is would some slight accpiaintanco with Hebrew 
writers, that chaya m.'ans generally, though not alwa^.s. wild Iteasts, ami buiemaJi. 
doineslic ■Mnxuii.lti. 

nms-: Maphreset and hdis Parsah correctly rendered in the Anglican version. 
" dividfith til 2 hoof." All grammarians refer the root of these two words to DIS 
(Piiro.--) or with ur (seen) a-i2. meaning /« hnak or to divide, lliug we hav« 
Furst and Buxtorf, giving the significations of the verb. I. franqcrc. ?. dividcre . 
and of tlie noun, pars fnil-ivi, acuta ad tciudcndiim tt effodimd'im (syn. n3« ungula) 
uncH». urigiiig. ungula (Khiue Hiif) rion dcji-iaa solum qun np-iS': nD-i2 nominatur 
ted utraque utpotc ad inuncamUin destinata, Sfc." -'As a noun, the hoof of sucli 
animals wiietiier diviued belore, as tlie ox, sheep, goat, hog, Deut. xiv. 4-8, or 
*ii '.jdA'd ojilj btliiod as the hi.rse,"— Parkhuist Men. ben I>rajl and Fcrnaadai 




and ns such, mny lie iipod by tlie Tlohrevvs This will be furtlier wpn 
by the cxainination following of some of their most eminent and 
aufliDritativc writers. W.' (•(inmienfe by tran-^huing from the commen- 
tary of ihe Icuined nnd eleiriint Abarbani;! on the 11th <h;ipter of 

tr;iii'-hitc ii/mn tiim: Pc^ Kt'yii.i — iivitiial di' j,efitiio ; SoiTailo — qni tiiiie pfnuno. 
T!ip (iiriiimi tt;n\Aiitor>,— h' /nmn Sj.ulfit. Ilort.t Wessuly niiikes <in tin se words 
tlic f.ilKiwiti!,' r(ni;irk>; " Ua-Iii in;iii]l:ui\- t!i:it tlie meaning (if J/ap/irrsel is iis 
givrn in til.' Tiir^'Uiii ol' (>iikrli,s, viz; np-ir (stMlii'aj dii'ldiHij, that Pariah '\< syuo 
liituini-J Willi Phititr (in Frcncli) and that Shoxsiuifjal SJk .txaiiff means tlie hoof 
Li'in;,' (lividf.l alHivo .ind Kema'li into t^vo chiw^ or nails— as tin; Targum has it, 
raVa n:'-o-jt oointalplm t,i/j„,'„, [cloven footed] for that there are some animals' 
havinir their hoofs divided ahovu, hut not completely divided, IxMn^,' joined be 
neath." Aceonlini,' to this expliination of Rashi, Maphrrset and Farsah have not 
the siiiiie tneaniny; ; sinee JAiy/An.^/ implies diriKi(m, as in Danl. v.. and Parsah 
means /lit- xo/f of thifoot. If it be aOirmed, that nceordiiig to the opinion of our 
Rabbi, every band .>r toot having divided fingers or claws be called Parsa, 
then shoiihl the huinai land also be so called. Kashbam, however, explains the 
terms as implying one perieet himf, like a shoe, and not as conveying naUs or claws 
upon iKxA\ finger like tho sha/itu and oriubct have, and Shossarir/it ishessang impbes 
Uie division of the hoof into two, and its not being one, as in the case of the horse and ass. 
According to this explanation, which 1 adopt, the te.\t teaches what here follows: — 
' Every beast which, from its birth, divideth the hoof, having on its foot a shoe like 
hotif covering the foot, and is further divided in sucli a manner as to present the ap- 
pearance of two lioofs, may be regarded as clean for foixl , and I am of opinion that 
tlie fiHit having a shoe like hoot", i- what is called in the sacred tongue Parsa, because 
it (the )'.oi>t) covers the l'.,ot. and is syiieniiuous with oopharesu in the passage luium'ith (ihey shall spread the garment), Deut. xx :.'. Num. iv. &c. So 
when the wi>rd P^ir^if .veins either with !^hc->n or s^vner/i it meani to spread 
since those letters | heir.i: included by Htbrew grammarians in i lie class] fre- 
quently interchange with each other. lUit K.idak in his Hhora^hnn Radi.x Paras 
SJiys, that e\ en if written with a urn tho word Parcx has always for its radical mean- 
ing to cut. and it is th w u~e.l metajib.irically to express pangs of the Ix^iv throuirh 
s.irn.w. (,ler xiv. S.nn. \.) Tla^ how, ver. is net n^v .-pinion . but I btlieve liiev all 
conv.-y ih.' i.ii a o\ spica.iiiig S. e 2nd t'lir. vi. F.x. 37 ; and with reference t.. all the 
passages cite.l b\ Kiinchi, 1 reninrk that in ca-es of deep i:rief, it occurs tkat the 
•utferers spT,,!.; t\.r;,>, their ; so the cloth is fprrad ou tho taWe for fo.xl in the 
CISC of the uuuuiHT. /Vrk.t,j and /".ircv, (with t^umecb") is Chaldaic, as in Daniel 
(hv. cii.) .Aecerding to my es]>lanati.'n. tlun. it h not projx r to apply the tenn 
J'artah t<i tho sole of tho ftxit, gretwrally, but to those animals only which have a 
shoe like h.H>f c \onng the ftxit. as in tho CAse of the ox, ass, horse, vtc Bin the 
»ole oi the f. Mt of other animals which have t.e- or claws, and \.wn everv too & 
Bail, IS not cdlod Pars* in the scriptures ..n any one <iecasi,in. See Is.i. v. 28 
Jor. xlviL V.x xxii itc." Tin learrKvl .Mendelssohn in a iHite to this corHment of 
Wessely siK^j^ts his hbas, and changes his liorman translation in accor.ianoe there 
witii We are Kdd »M)oiigh. however, to dissent from such high Ruthoritieg. and 
- T v-.eiitn iai.fu i»ir \ei oi . piMion thai tiie ^Wmaru idea of the word I'aros is u> 
■ .Ci^liN lu It h,^s been given by almost all loxicogr&pher?. at»d by tl\e aacieiit Ile^ 



He vviiies — "Every iinimal having hootV, iu:.\ this h.K.f split or 
tliviJeJ into two, possesses the lirst retiuisite of the text ; the secoiul 
requisite is, tliat th(! animal ehew tiie cuil, or ruminate. Poss- 
essing these two eonditivais, it is ckan, ami peraiitled to be eaten. It 
is not, however, the intention tf the text to imply that tliese ie(iui.-.ites 
re:i liT th' luiima', elean ji<r ,c, oi- their a'osence, uu<\i uu jt'-r .>>•; but it 

lr.".v C.iiiiiiiii;.-\tuf<. i;. \\\-~^thj'~\<]o[\ i>l '• ^prrcVn;/ \ho. cl.itli" ill the pa'^age 
rpfiTi-ccl til, V.-" canniit but tljiiik oxivcillriL'-ly faiuiAil, ami not Viarraiited by ii 
ktK-wli'il^e of l"a~torn tu-tiuiis ;'^ f!preadiii(i. espicially in t!iu case p:ir- 
ticalarly ineriiidnnd, is only dh!Jhi;; tin; fold,-, and pluciti^' flat, the i,'arnu'iit pri- 
Horvc'il ia a f.'l x- i funu by the \viK:s parents. So the !iau,]s beisig lield out in :;rief 
is merely nn elabcratioa of the primary nii anin;^ of the root, since they then 
beooniL' i!/V!il".l from the, as compared to their po-ition, or separated, when 
in a state of rest. But we niu-^t not continue Ioniser this inquiry. We will only 
^-ay th it Serrano in his Spanidi .lewi-h version, ( A. M. 5455) whicii it is probable 
Wes.solv follows, already translates in accordance with such an o|)inion, since he 
lias — "qui tieiie pesuuo 1/ fste pe.^nno IfiiJidu en differente>" 

nyrr Shht^atiqirt and IT':' Shrs^ntii^. Tlie^e worils arcs by all referred to the 
root Sfia.tmr.ifi whicli mean- to ch'ave or divide. '"In rid/ re, dhcind'rf rrhit dc unrjiilin 
animaUum dirixis rjurr a jirdis pnrh posteriorc cnnncrn' sunt — Furst. Flndere. 
Diffiiid. Discinl. liifidum, Bindatum r.^sc."— Bust. " This word is applied te ♦hoso 
animals that are cloven footed, i c. whose hoofs are not only divided into tw. ^jartu 
or claws, but those two daw.s cleft from each oilier without any connecting nieni- 
br.ane — Vark. It is rendered by the Sjiani.-h Jcwifh translators — /; /icivJi' u hcndcdura 
de Unas, or, iy«/ ii'iic /os pr.tiinos lirdid'tn. 

n'ryo Maxqalat and n-13 G'rah. The loot of tlie first word all agree to be 
ngaloh, to ascend ; in lliphil, ascmdere faeiem ; G'crah is al-o generally admitted to 
mean the cud, rumen, the contents ot the stomach which the animal chews again. 
In opposition to many, Furst derives it from nnj Gcrur, " signiticatio — ruminntio 
pabulum rnfnlnatuin in phrasi, Gerah Gtrar de cibi rcirLictione atque reiiprocn- 
Horn'." So alxi Gesenius who makes nj" (Lev. xi. 7) to be the future leii-e Xip/ial. 
It means strii'th , siiys Parkhurst, to stir or rai-e up the cud from the rumen or 
first stomach, ])eut. xiv. S. Vi/oh O'tr^r/i., according to either tran-I.-ition the n (he) 
in ffernh agreeing with chuz/er, masc mu-t here be radical — Paikhur-t. The fol- 
lowing, cited by the MudHaph dlmruch, furnishes additional Talmudic exjiosition. 
The reference'- are to Mi-h. ch. 'J of Yvmah, andch. ;> of Tarn id. li'N^n -|n na' aip-;;: 
. inx mx T7v;r -tnK -i3k K^m rtnn 1333 xim mj hcpj rfvbi-n -ly Wessely in 
his comment, after explaining the term to be chewing the cud, calls attention 
to the rem:uk of Kinichi, who says the root of Grrah is probably identical 
with the noun, but refers it to the Kephulim, or verbs having a duplicate radical, 
froiu its atfinity to Garon and Gargcret. After quoting Ra>hi's Glo^s on 
words, ho approves the opinion which refers it to the root Gerar, the Gimmel re- 
ceiving Tiere to compensate for the omission of Dagi sh in the R' sli. Then, after lUssent- 
ing from llashi's views respecting the word Gcrirah, he adds, Maiigaleh Gcrah 
means the reaseen-ion of the rumen .and its remastication and deglutition, accord- 
ing to the tran-lation of Onkelos who renders it by k-i:'2 Kpn [Maska Thishrah] 

rumen in aniiuala which are clean." 

_- _— ,^.l:..,.J A-, aU.-. 



t<';iclif> us, tliiit llicsc ,ifo tho signs by uliich we ;iro tu prnnoiinrp tfn; 
animal clean i;.r niMii's r,„nl. (, I- tliH icvrrs" ; that i>, that th.> (I.'sh of 
the animal.-, j.()SS('.s>ingth('S!' rrquisitcs, is f,,r the must part. proixT and 
gooil for man's diet. Tims, tiie reason wliy animals chew the cm.], is. 
that they have no grimhrs [incisors] in tlie upper jaw, whc'ewith dniy 
to grind or masticate their food ; and on whicli .account th(y ar.' un.ihle 
to eat any hard substance but ve-, table uiatt.r wiiirji tie y swall.ivv 
whoh', and uliieh, whfn softened in the .-toniach tiirou-li the natural 
heat,8ic., is regurgitate,! into the tliroat again, for further mastication 
and deglutition. Animals of this order are mostly obes.' and best 
adapted to become food f.)r man, since they ,an find their food at all 
times and in all places ; their fat also, is, comparatively speaking, 
better distributed than witli other clas>es of animals, because they feed 
upon vegatatit)n, botli green and dry, whieli does not yield gross 
nutriment;— ,-ueh animals are not ferocious nor predaceous. In addition 
to this, they pos-^es.s a broad and divided hoof; wherefore they do not 
require claws like those beasts which prey upon human beings or other 
animals; which kind of food produces in these latter, a hot dry tempera- 
ment and cruel disposition: * but the fc.rmcr ' walk the earth' eating the 
produce of the fi(dd. In this connexion we have to remark thai the 
prophet Isaiah (upon whom be peace) shows us that at the time of 
the future redemption, " (he lion sh<iU eat straw like (he o.r," on which 
account " they shall not hurt nor destroy," and that " the wolf shall 
dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid, 
and the cow and (he hear Jwll feed (ogefhpr,'' because the preying on 
fle^h and blood i., [both] the cause [and eflect] of their olyeetionable 
temperament, and of their trampling upon and seizing what they 
require. Nature, on this account, has prepared for them claws and 
fitting grinders to tear their food, but for the clean animals, whose 
food is the grass of the field, she has prepared divided and broad 
hoofs, as their manner <f walking on the earth to gather their food 
therefrom requires; nor lias she bestowed on them grinders or incisors 
since these are not rccjulred fur vegetable food." Abarbanel next 
proceeds to remark on some of the beasts mentioned in the sacred text, 
which will be herealter noticed. We will continue some further 
observations of this c.debrated JewisJj commentator, having a closer 
connexion with just (juoted: thinking our readers will not 
be uninterested to see, for the first time in an English dress, the contin- 
uation of what we may regard as a brief Hebrew treatise on Zoology, 

• Comp.ire this remark of Abarbanel with what has been ailvanrr.-! K- -.....!.. 
fcicntiSc writers as to the effects of blood-eating. See also p 26. 



whicl), altlioiip:li ropublislie.d hy Don I-;iac Abarhancl some three 
centuries ami a half jjast only, was actually taught in tli(' schools of the 
llchrcws •=onio fifteen centuries back ; for our author ailvaiicis nothing 
that is nut to be found in tiic Talmud, and e.s we have clsewhi re said, 
the Talmud is a mere comj)ilation of ancient teachings in l-rael. Rut 
prior to continuing the IJabbi's remarks, ht us make a Irw of our own 
on what has been already advanced from him. The readir will, doubt- 
less, readily perceive their pertinency to thf main question, since they 
involve inquiries elucidatory of the nature of the chan and unclean 

We observe, in the first place, a remarkable identity in the 
definitions of the ruminating animals as given by Al)arbanel and the 
Talmud, and by modern naturalists. Let us compare his definitions 
with those of the illustrious and world-ren<;\vncd Cuvier. In his 
Pef/ne Animal, he gives tlie following definition of the Ruminantia, 
wl'icli he says may be considered as an order very distinct of the 
jMammnlia— the first class into which vertebrate animals are divided. 
— " The order of the Ruminantia is characterized by its cloven feet, by 
the absence of the incisors to the upper jaw, and by having four 
stomachs " The identity of definition is immediately perceived ; for 
tliough in the quotation wo have just mad", Abarbanel only indirectly 
refers to the four stomachs of the ruminants, yet in other passages 
of his writings they aie specially referred to as characteristics, just 
as they are in the Talmud. See in particular tlie Treati.-e C/io/i/>, I'lrck 
Elu Triephot, .\c., p. 42. Tiie absence of such reference, however, 
in the above passage from Abarbam 1, leads us to observe that the names 
given in the Talmud show how intimate the ancient Hi-ljrews were, 
even before the destruction of the sc<'ond temple, witli the mechanism 
and philosophy of rumination. In the first place, we remark that 
with reference both to position and functions, the fi'st and second 
stomachs have much in common. Tiius, though at first sight, the 
second stomach would seem to be merely an appendage to the third, 
in front of which it is; yet, it may, with greater propriety, be 
regarded as rather a prolongation of the first. This first stomach, which 
is the largest, is named tlw paunch (magnus venter rumen, aut, penula) 
is covered with papillae and is lined by a layer of the epidermis ; and 
the second which is called the honeycomb [reticulum arsinenm] from 
the mucous membrane which lines its interier, forming a multitude 
of folds so arranged as to constitute polygonal cells, like those of a 
bees comb. And with reference to their functions, recent investigation 
;ia;i siiuv.ninese ro be iucnliculln respect to the regurgitation by wiiich 
the food contained in them returns into the mouth. For this has mostly 



p ally by he expcnn.en.s of M. FJourens, tl.t both ,h. ilm .1 

; r;r':; :*''^ '"^'7 -" ^''--- • Moreover ...i..::! 

tl.e -nest: V r '"^' '""•^^' >' "'''-^*- ^1- refre.hment of 

r I. .„„,,: „„.,.„,. i Tl,„ f„„.l, .„„„„,., i, eall..J W (In - 
w ,.], , "T"™'"" '"'-"■•'!=) ""J i" Hebrew n..p (KetaM 

- «l^ T::t.:;::"V,'T ™" ="' '■'^"™"- ^- '■"'<'>"- ''-o' 

- -■"<•" "--:::»:rri:-:r:':::: 

en,;; I; •";;;::;;;;::::;;■:,':'■: !:-.'^ ^j-n-'" -^.n™ «.. •• .i. p,„.„ ,„„ ,„„„. 
'< .'.^ ..-", ;..;'i ;;;:.;:;;; ::;i';::;::,::'''"'' - '."'*-' •'■« '■"- 

»i:";;;r^^;;-— r - 

we .tat. that th. n! t^l' ^^l; ^l>out ...anu.nn. the correctne.. of this rend.n„., 



quence, with the phenomena and process thf^reof also. Continuing now 
our comparison between the definitions of Abarbanel and Cuvier, 
let us premise this single remark. Tt is n 't to do for^'otten that neither 
the Talnmd nor Abarbanel are »vriting medical or p!iy.-io!(>i:lcal treatises, 
yet, the latter gives what none can consider a contemptible account of 
the process of rumination as compared with ttiose of modern writers. 
A further remarkable identity in Abarbanel's and ('nvier's definitions 
is easily and clearlv perceivable by comparing the Ia>t two paragraphs 
of the quoted comment with the following jxislulates of the renowned 
naturalist in his formal and learned treatise ; — " A hoof wliicli e.ivelopes 
all that portion of the toe which touches the ground, blunts its sensi- 
bility, and renders t'le foot incapable of seizing." •' For cutting flesh, 
grinders are required as trendiant as a saw, and jaws fitted like 
scissors whicli have no other motion than a vertical one." •' Hoofed 
animals are all necessarily herbivorous, and have Hat crooked grinders, 
inasmuch as their feet preclude the possibility of their seizing a living 
prey, &c., &c." 

We continue Abarbanel's rcnu.rks havinj^ reference to the jreneral 
di"ections f(>r di^criiiiination laid down by the L'.'viticul law. "Our 
pious sages have traditionally supplied us with the signs M-liercbj we 
may distinguish the clean from the unclean of those ruminant animals 
possessing horns. Bt ■ is which ruminate, having no giinders or 
incisors on the upper jaw are suppliiMl by nature with horns ; the matter 
which should form these teeth being (Jompensated by ht r with horns, 
which renew after their birth, at whicii time they do not possess any." 
This teaching is thus verified in one of the most recent and popular 
works on Zoology, that of Dr. Carpenter. " Horns are foiuid on the 
heads of all the other aniinils of the order, iii the niales at least. 
The horns essentially consi,-t of prominences of the frontal bone. * 
The IMammalia which are furnished with bony branching lioins, all 
belong to the orde- of tiie Ruminants." f Abarbanel continues, 
" The use of these horns to such aninids is thr.t they may defend 
themselves therewith aguinst e.isuulties and attack, since they cannui 
fall back upon their teeth and claws like the predaceous animals." 
Our commentator then proceeds to discourse of the distinguishing signs 
of birds and fishes, which we must omit for the present, while we see 
what further has been advanced by Hebrews respecting the clean 

Maimonides in his Yad Huchasakah, at tlie first chapter of his 
Treatise on Forbidden Meats, which contains the Hebrew traditional 

• Sec. 289. 

t See. f-Z. 



J 1. I .s n nffirrnntivoprocopt [obligatory on Israelite..] t , become 
"cq-.nnuH vv„h tl..- s,.„. which cINtin^ui.!. b..tu-o,M, b,-. f 

n ll.e „PH,,- j:„v ; an.l .-very rnrai„»„, bea.t al.o JivlJ.,!, ,|,„ hoof 

•hcgh „i,i„!. ',;;,: , ""■'■'"• ;■; " """ '''''""■ »"« >'»i"»nije.. 

;-H, „„,„.. :™"::;;::,::z:::: : :;::;;f-^;^';^"t• 
<tc ■ refer, ,„ ,|, ", '»P"«'°» ■>■><■■.' Ii.a-t w},icl, raminale, 

Tr. T„ /:«:"" .T""'' "■"'■*;v°''"'' "«■"■■"■- '« •'■•"■» -•.. 

»™run>,, ,,, ^7,, "" ""'";;'.'""' »"•' "' "« *■» •™™»1> 'inch 

iir r-i* "«" ^ :;:: - <-> : t r Lf x=j 

»■«] theref J" r^; ijl '"■''■. t""" "'""5 »'» » I"™!"""? »f f in i.. 

.1- .« .e-e;ir.r,Srr:!;! ■:■.!'■;:*::"; ""*'! '^"'«'"- ^— , 

• ^w n.„.e..„.„e of ,Le,e a»i,.* ^;»,-::;;;;';s:r:;:i:;:^xr"° '"" 



i\ beast in tho wilderness and is ij^iiuraiit of its nature, but finds its boolrt 
divided ; lie oxaniines Its nioutli, and if it has no tfcth a!)()vc, llion it 
is iindi)ul)li'(lly clean ; and thus is the camel distinauisliahle. Il he find 
a l)east wilh illci^ed or fissured mouth, he examines its hoofs, if they be 
divided, it is clean ; and thus is the swine distinguishable. If he finds 
hotli nioiitb and feet cut, be eNaniines it, after it is slaULditered, beneath 
the backbone. [On tearing the flesh, in this part of the I'emale camel, 
some of it will rend woofwiso, and some warjjwise: — Ha^hi,] it he 
find its Hesh i)roceed [or tear] warjiwise and woofwist? it is clean, and 
xo is the niiarood disllnguisbal)le, f )r such is the nature of its llesh. [Tho 
"ngarood" isg(;nerally translated //v^Z «»■,.) ob xxxix. 5. It denotes the same 
in Chaldee witii some variation in the form, as it is used in the plural, 
which is not the case in the Hebrew. It is also so understood in Talmudic 
Hebrew. See Keleein ch. vili., the Aruch, and Ling. Sac. rad. Arod. 
In Shemotl: Rabba, sec. 1, fol. 119, it denotes a species of serpent.] 
§ 4-. A clean beast that begot young having the appearance of an 
unclean animal, although it divides not the hoof, and chews not the cud, 
but is like the horse or ass in every respect, this young is permitted 
for food, that is, when born in the Israelite's presence ; but ii he should 
net apart in his flock a cow which is with young, and after an absence, 
finds a vountr one like the swine, even if it suckle it, it is yet doubt- 
ful and prohibited for food, for possii)ly it may have been born of an 
unclean animal, though attaching itself afterwards to the clean. 
§ 5. An apparently clean beast, begotten of an unclean beast, 
although it divide the hoof and chew the cud, and is even in all respects 
like an ox or like a sheep, is yet unlawful food ; since a preponderance 
of the unclean, we must pronounce as unclean, and of the clean, we 
must consider as clean ; wherclbrc an unclean fish, found within one 
clean, is prohibited ; and a clean fish found in one unclean, is for the 
stated reason, permitted. § G. A clean beast that begot, or that contain- 
ed, a creature [monstrosity] having two backs, and also a double back 
bone is prohibited food ; this is the npiDU? [Shessungha, cloven, or 
divided] to' which lioly writ refers, when it declares, [Deul, xiv. 7.] 
' Nevertheless, these ye shall not eat, of them that chew the cud or of 
them that divule the nriDtr'n noiD [Parsah llasseslningha, cloven hoof,'] 
implying a creature that was liorn. being divided or parted, as it were, 
into two animals. § 7. And so with respect to any beast in which 

upper jaw, licncc hk correction ; tliu result, however, i-* tn show iliat all nimala po8- 
■e^sing regular incisive teeih :ue uncleau. lie (llarabaa) further thought, that it 
was the iiiteutiou of MaimoniJes when he wrote that ' every ruiniuant auimal 
divided the hoof to convey, that this is so in respect both to those who do and d» 

not p; 

such teeth ; but I havo alre.iJy explaiiiuJ hi, opiuLou.' 




was luiiiul acreatuf'', liavini; iIk- form of a fowl ; allhougli it niav prove 
one of liio e-leaii f;|)ocies of fowl, yet must it Ijc arcouiileil as imlauful 
food. It i> not proper to rogunl as clean, any creature foiinil in any 
anlrnal !'Ut siicli as possess lioofs. § S. Of a!! beasts, wild and donu'a- 
tic, vvhieli the world alfords, none are permitted for food eNc<>pt tlie ten 
kinds ^peellied in the law.' Three are of the domestic kind. viz. : 1. 
•\MV [>hm', o\ ; we retain, for the prest'nt, the translation of the Aiij^lican 
versuMi,] 2. nu; [seh, sheep] 'i. n' [iigez, goat]; and seven are included 
amonji the wild heast.-, vl/i : I. h'H [aval, hart] '2. 'ly [tsehi, roe- 
luick] :}. -linn' [yachmur, fallow deer] J-. ip« [ako, wild goat] f). ]w-'. 
[dishon, pygarg] 6. i«n [tco, wild ox] 7. not [zemer, chamois] these 
and their various genera, such as the nan -iif [shor aiiar, according to 
some the wood-ox. Compaie Targ. Jer. I't-. 1. 10. Treat Peah ch. 
H, Ra-,hi, Pri. 1. 10, according to others the n'jnn Tarhdah wild ox 
or bullalo \ I'arg. Onk. Deut. xiv. j. ("holm fo. 80, a.] and of the no 
[merie, translated by some, tutted ox] which are of the ox kind. All 
these ten species and their genera, are ruminant, and of bifurcated hoof ; 
therefore, he who [at first sight] knows them, need not examine either 
their moulh or fei-t, [to ascertain their lawfulne-^s for food.] § 9. .\1- 
though they are all [>ermitted for food, yet do we require to discrimi- 
nate between the clean among domestic, and tlie clean among wild ani- 
mals; for the fat of the wild animal is permitted, and its blood, [issuing 
at the time it is slaughtered] must be covered ; whereas with respect to 

• •' It wa> Will known :uid manifest Lcfori' Iiim, who ' s;iid and tlio ■n-oiM was' that 
the uncluan animals oxcoud the number of tin- clean; thorefore doth lioly writ enu 
nieratt; the clean ; and also that the clean fowl exceed in number the unclean, there- 
fore doth tlic text enumerate the unolean"— Talmud, Treat. Cholin, Ferek Elu 
Ti rrphot, P. t"., h. Sec the }faj;j Mishnoh, whicli cites tliis passage, and one furtlier 
(page 80, of the fame treatise.) to >Iio\v tliat ilaimonides is correct in the traditional 
rule he lays down as to the number anj division of the enumerated animals. There 
is a di?cus~ion— particularly intcrestiiii,' witli reference to the knowledge of natural 
history di- played— as to tlie correctness of Maimonides' classing the shnr habar, (ge- 
nerally understood .-ts the wood-ox) among the wild beasts, upon which subject 
there is a dilTercncc of opinion in the Talmud ; but it is teX) lengthy, for more than 
a pasMiig notice. Its importance in fixing a cliarge of apparent self contradiction 
on Maimonides, is but very small, since it can with truth be asserted, tliat he writes 
\Fith reference to the opinions contained in tlie Talmud, as indeed the Mar/!,! Mishnrh 
gives us good grounds for believing ; — besides modem naturalists have disputed upon 
similar points, andit isnot always protitablc or necessary, to repeat the grounds of 
their opinions. The inquiring reader, will find tliis discussion on reference to the 
Magid MUhnch, the Juscpfi Mixhri'li, and other commentaries, publi-hed with the 
iWof Maimonides, also to the Talmud, Treatise Kilaim, F'-nJc Oto Vict Brno, <tc. 
We learn however, that the !fhor fm/'fir, is, according to some, identical with the 
nb3-in TarhJah, Wild ox, or, (see Targ. Onk. Deut. xiv, 5, ChoUnio, 80, a.) 
v'biie accoruiug to ottiers, ii is ui U)o goat kiod 



the (lomostir animals, flic sacrificial .■^iitl is prDliibilcil under [lain nf ex- 
cision, anil it^ lilooil (Iocs not rc(|uirc to In* covi-ri'd. § 10. Tlio dis- 
tinsnisliiriLi sil'hm of tho wild liivists, are yn|)|>!i('d to n.s by tradition. 
Thu.s, evorv animal <lividing the luuif, and chewing llu: end. and pc si'sh- 
inii; illvidi'd horns like the ■?'« (ayal, stn^'.) is t;) he'red as nnijucs- 
tionablv clean : but willi reference to all, tint havini: their horns divided, 
iftheir horns he covered or enca;;ed, like ihe horns of the ox, incised like 
the horns of the ijoat, and the incision erased, and erooked like the liorti:! 
of the tsebi [roebuck,] these are wild animaLs which are clean, provided 
always that the horns possessthese r(M|uisi1es, licini^encas(nl, incited, and 
crooked. § 1 1. 'J-his applies, however, only to such kinds of animals as are 
not known , but as to the seven specie's of wild beast nuMiiioned in the taw, 
if one he well acquainted with these, even if he find that they possess 
not horns, he may eat its fat. and is obliijed to cover its blood in slauiih- 
tering it. § 12. The slm- linf)<ir\s of the domestic species, and the trnp 
kcrcdi, [bv some translated, unicorn] nltlKnitih it possess but one horn 
it is accounted as a wild animal. All, respecting which, there may be a 
doubt as to whether it be of the wild or domestic class of aniiuid-, the 
fat of such is prohibited, the scriptural penalty of -^tripes is not incurred, 
and the blood thereof is to be covered at the time of slau;;htcring. 
§ 13. A beast of mixed breed produced from a domestic at\im;',! that is 
clean and a wild beast that is clean is called '13 (kooi) its fat is jtrohib- 
ited, the penalty of stripes is not incurred, and they cover its blood." 
Thus far Maimonides as to the distinctive ^igns of beasts. 

A furtJK.T result of a critical examination of tin! text would be to 
establish, secondly, as regards,/7.sAe,s-, that " whatever hath fins and ^ca!e9 
in the waters, in the seas and in the rivers," are to be accounted clean 
and proper for fooil, and as such, may he used by the Hebrews; win reas 
" all that have not fins nor scales in the seas, and in the rivers,"' adds 
the text, V. 10, "of all that move in the waters, and of any living 
thing which is in the waters, they yA«// ^e an abomination unto you. 
V. 11. They sliall be even an abomination unto you; ye shall not eat 
of their fiesh, but ye shall have their carcass^vs in abomination, v. 12. 
Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in the waters, that shoU be 
an abomination unto you." This is further shown by the Hebrew 
writers, to whom we have just referred. Abarbanil's remarks are a,s 
follow — •' Just as two conditions characteris;3 the clean beasts, and 
two, the clean fowl, [Abarbanel refers here to his comment, respect- 
ing the clean birds which we omit till hereafter] so doth the text lay 
down two conditions which must be possessed by the clean fi.-lies. Its 
expression, therefore, is, " these may you eat of all thai are in the 
waters, aii iliui uavc iiuii uaii bcuie:* in iiit; watcia} ciC., ' uUt tnooC 



wliicli me nut sd «haractiTi>t' 1 " sliull bo an uboinination unto yon." 
SoniL- li.Uf lliiiiiH;lit to a>>i;;n as a rciiion for llicsi! dircctiun.s, tiiat 
fihhe.s tlial p(>^.-i'>H tins aiul simIcs, an; eiiablfil to swim to and fro 
wlii'rt\ ir aii'l wliontvi-r tiH'y (Iciire ; wlu-rt-as tlioc wltu dii iujI posdetia 
fins and scalt-s, aro not so abli-; vvliiM-efore tlicy [tlie lattirj remain con- 
tinually in muddy pluci's in tin; water, and becomi; carihy and of 
unulioisome nattuc. H it iliis is in rfaiify not the ci\-v, for lins and 
scab's arc ciiufudcn d in li>li, in consciiucncc of a hupcrllux of nature 
wliicli tli<y i).i.-.r,oss, and tiieicforc dotii tiii.-ir body bi'comt; clean and 
good for food, \vbi(di is not tlie case with tiio.-,e not jto-scssin;^ fins and 
scales. These latter are of an exceedinjj;ly moist nature, and have not 
the advantage of gelling rid of this natural superflnx, whicli is, as it 
were, shut up with them, and then fore is it that they are pronounced 
unclean. The text adds with reference to tln'se fishes the ex[>ression 
•'in the s. as and in the rivers," because there is avast JifFercnce 
between these found in salt water and those in rivers of fresh water, 
and therefore doth it lay down one general rule for all, ami estnblislieth 
one law for all that move in the waters, and for all living things in the 
water, whetlur you conclude them to be of the reptile or fish species. 
The word ypm [-liekets, an abomination] is em[)loyed three times in 
the text, and tlic expr'--;ion "all that have no fins nor scales" twice, 
because there are some lisii which pos-css scales wliile they are in the 
water, but leave them there when taken foriii from the water. The text 
therefore says ex[)licitiy. "all that have fins and scales in the waters, 
both in the seas and rivers, thc^e may you eat, but those which have 
no fins nor scales whih- they are in the seas and rivers, you of your 
own accord shall loath and abominate as things to be rejected of men ; 
and evi-n as they are abomination unto you because of your nafur&l 
antipathy to them, so shall they become one in consequence of this 
command. Ye shall then not eat of their flesh, nor touch thoir carcase 
for they shall bi; an abomination [shekets]. The word ypo' [shekets], 
is derived from and compounded of tu/n fusher, which] and \p [kats, to 
vex or fret] as in Genesis xxvii, 46, "n^ 'nyp, I am vt'.ed or fretted 
[Ang. vers, weary] witii my life." Now because some might peradven- 
ture say, ' Nut to eat of them is, doubtless, proper, since their 
flesh is bud; but as to the p.'ualty attached to toueliing them, why 
should their carcasa be pronounced an abomination ?' on this account 
sailh the t'*xt for the second time, * all that have no fins nor scales in 
the waters shall lie an abomination unto you'; as if it were giving us 
the Talmudic caution cnin Vw yan w'^Dirsa [Investigate not matters 
above your comprehension] and seek not of yourselves to ass'gn reasons 
tor my comujanumeuts. As sum of all, take this general ruie, — All 


aquatic iind marine creatures wliicii ilo not possess fins nnd .^cale.'^, shall 
be an abiiiiiiuatioii unto yuu, and tliiit, wlietlier in rcHi^ct of rating ur 
lo«i(|iit)<» lliftn, " 

The vfry important cau'ion wliicti AWarliancl cites as to ^;nt)jt•cling 
any of the precepts of hol^ >»Tit to a pre>umpluous system of ratiocina- 
tion, he nio>t certainly dues not mean to apply to any inijiiirics into 
the nature ol' tiie animals permitted or proinhited, since we have seen, 
and ^llall yet lurtlier sec tiiat hi' himself enters deeply and altly into this 
Kuhject ; and, moreover, particularises the how and irltrrr such an inves- 
tijfation hecduies improper or re[)reliensil)le. Im iiroceedim;, then, to ex- 
amine presently, the directions of the Levitical law with reference' to the 
birds, w»! shall d^vell for some time upon the analogy existing hetween 
the clean liirds and the clean (juadrupeds, \\hi(li we think well worthy 
of noiice, anti intimately (uwinecied with our subject. At present we 
have to iiupiire v\hat the other eminent Jewi>h authority, already 
quoted, teaches with respoct to the permitted and forbidieii fishes. 
Maimonides devotes one paiat;ra|)!i (the twenty-fourlli) of the chapter 
from which we have before translated, to a notice of the distinctive signs 
of fislies ; it ir^ as follows; — " Two signs distinguish tlie clean fishes, fins* 
and scales; the lormer enable tiiem to swim, and the latter cleave all 

• It may bi' noressary here to coiiliiiuo our cxaminition of the text. \Ve notice 
first, D"0 Mdijim anil a"3' Vdiium. the waters, •• from the root a- ytim, tumult. As a 
N. maso, plur ; (it has a <iual Icrmin ilioii,) thus diTiominated from thfir being so sus- 
ceptible of, and iVcijueutiy as^itateil by, tumultuous motions," — I'arkhurst. Wessely 
in his coiiinieiit on tiio 1 1th chap, ot Leviticus, says •• Tlie wool mayitn applies to 
all waters, those of seas, rivers, ponds, ami of pits, caves, Ike, and even those which 
are contained in utensils of any sort ; for llsh can multijily in all, therefore is the 
word nuii/im used here indefinitely, so as to imply all (ish that breed in the water, 
Vamiin means tlie oceans, as it is said ' the gatherini; together of the waters, God 
called yamiin.' • • • Ncchalun means those streams (rivers) vshich are the 
products of the lains and springs, alluded to in Ecclesiastes i, I's. 104." 

T33r Scnapfiir means, according to all. ./in, and is therefore correctly rendered in 
the Ang. version and hy the Spanish translators as a/u, by the German, yZu.s.v/e.icrn, 
Cauda pmn.i iiians. Targ. hits. The lxx. have Plrruqia, wings, prohably from 
the resemblance maintained between it and the wing of a fowl, 
niypirp Kwiskcsct scai. r, escama, "literally , a little piece, so called from its rigidity," — 
Paik. ■• Kasslccsxct means the skinny portion tixed to the lisli, as in 1 Sam. xvii. • with 
a coal of mail (sliiryon kasskassim) he was clad;' so writes Rashi, but Naclmian- 
ides remarks that 'hese scales cannot be said properly to be fixed to the fislies' skin, 
but are round integuments which can be removed with the hand or knife, where- 
fore it IS .said in the Talmud that kassl:essd is a dress, • • for as a dress i« 
quickly put otf, so may these scales be easily removed with the hand , but this i» 
not so with those which cleave to the skin, [and which circumsiaiice establishee 
•uch tishes to be unclean]." — Wess. 




over their boJies. All possessing finn, possess scales. If they do not 
possess these in tlie first instance,* f)ut thoy afterwards grow with them, 
or if they have scales whilst in the water, hut when drawn forth, they 
leave them in the water, they are permitted. Those which have not 
scales covering the whole of their bodies are permitted ; indeed, though 
they had only one fin and one scale, they are permitted." To these 
remarks it may, perhaps, he addeJ as worthy of note, that fish with fins 
being only permitted, there is, so to speak, a connecting analogy herein 
exhibited between these ami the just mentioned superior animals 
(quadrupeds) which those fishes not possesiniz fins, most certainly do not 
exhil)it ; and whereby, it is perhaps not unreasonable to suppose an 
inferiority in these finless and scaleless fishes, in respect to their approach- 
ing to aquntic or marine reptile!^, is implied by the sacred penm?n. This 
opinion may be considered as deriving some support from the circum- 
etancc that naturalists have uniformly remarked upon the analogy exist- 
ins: between the organs of locomotion of fishes, and those of quadrupeds ; 
thus, the fins of the former, called \\\c fcctoral or thoracic, from their 
situation, have been considered as correspondent with the fore feet of 
the latter ; and those placed farther back called ventral or abdominal 
fins, have been conceived to represent the hind feet of the first class of 
vertcbrated animals. The vertical fins on the back are termed dorml 
fins, and those on the under surface of the body anal fins ; the fin by 
which the tail is terminated beir.g termed the caudal fin. The mcm- 
bi.nes of these fins arc supported by rays or bands more or less numer- 
ou'.',and those of the pectoral and ventral fins, according to the represented 
analogy between the organs of fishes and quadrupeds, have been supposed 

ypw fkfkct^im abniiiiriLitioii, particularly what is cpromonially unclean; specially 
applied to reptiles. 

yni:' s/it'/T/.s a replil.', woriri ; sho-ets hinr^ojf winced repti!,-. lcs::er fishes. " The 
Paraphrast nui>l have conclndcd this word to mean, particularly, ninveiiieiit, for he 
translates it nrm"— Kinichi. Abarbanrl says it is cn./pnuiah'd of ashcr 
which, anil ro/i- runnetii. '■ Ri'ptil.\ omnc animal quud ^itpra iernim non rminct, 
terrcstre aut aqualik u' sunt rcu.'. hcustrr formica-, milironrx, vermes ct /li'sw-f, Gen. 
20 " " The moviii!^ thiif^f. or as the {;reek Iranslatrth rrrrpim: thim:^. But the He- 
brew shcrfls is more lar>,'e tlian that which we call the creepin^i thin;,', for it con- 
taiiieth tliinirs ino\ inj; swiftly in the waters as .sicifHWUisr .//■■■/im. and the earth, as 
runninu' uuazcls, mire. S^r. 11. Salomon on Exod i., .saith that they did l«nni> forth 
six at one birth. [Rashi says this because of the extraordinaiily rapid increase of 
the Israehtes in Eirypt, the word in the text bein<r frri/i>/irf/>u], and Aben Ezra, 
that the women brought forth twins and more." Critica Sacra. 

• The Yoreh Deah explains ( ch. 8U, §1, com wen/') that if the scales cannot be 
removed readily with the hand or any other instrument, thi-y are not to be accounted 
as such, and the fishes are to be pronounced, in consequence, unclean. 




to represent the toes of the feet. From hence, also, is apparent the 
expressiveness and propriety of the Hebrew term (or fui which isTDJD a 
pluriliterai, conipoundeiJ of nJD (Seneh)a i/tww, and id (Var) to break, 
and of Parkliurst's remark that " the frame or texture thereof gives the 
reason of the TIehnnv name," since the fin of a fish consists of rays, or 
according to tlie Hebrew phrase, of thorfis i. c, little bones or cartilagi- 
nous ossicles supportiiiir a mcmhrane broken or divided into several par- 
titions. Those who would see the analogy ably carried out would do 
well to refer to Professor Stark's valuable " Natural History," (Ed. 
Edinb., 1828, V. I., p. 377,) from which we cannot refrain transcribing 
his following brief, but flattering, panegyric of our learned co-religion- 
ist Bloch. " Among those who contributed to that progress, (of 
Ichthyology, or study of fishes) by accurate representations of the animals, 
Mark Eleazar Bloch, a Jewish physician at Berlin, deserves to be 
noticed. His IcIitJiyoloqie ou Hktoire Naturclle des Poissofis, \r. six 
volumes folio, was published in 1785-9f>, with 4.52 colored plates, the 
greater part of which are acciirately drawn and described from nature; 
and the facts connected with the history, specific differences, and uses of 
fishes detailed with ecjual accuracy, have furnished most subsequent 
writers with a storehouse of information on the subject of the European 
species. The original edition being difficult to be procured, a small 
copy in ten volumes, 18 mo, was published at Paris in 1801." 

The distinctive signs of birds are not supplied us by the Scriptures, 
though they are by ancient Jewish tradition. In the Talmud, Treat. 
Cholin (Mish. ch. 3, §6) we learn "that every [predaceou*] bird 
which strikes its talons into its prey* is unclean: every bird which has 
an additional claw,f a crop, and of which the internal coat of the stom- 
ach may be peeled off [with the hand] is of the clean species. Every 
bird which [when placed on a perch] divides its toes equally, is an 
unclean one." Abarbanel when pointing out the means of compen- 
sation exhibited in the cases of the wild and domestic (piadrupeds, which 
we have already (pioted, thus continues his remarks vvhicl. have refer- 

• DTn Doress, act'oniiiiy; to some, s-uch as do not wait for llie tieaih ol' their victim 
but eat it alive, and altliou^h the coiiinion Ibwl eats worms ami reptiles while they 
yet have life, yet could not tlie Hebrew lei ni derisah be properly applied to this. 

+ I'laoed behind and above the front ones; the toes are usually in number tour, 
and never more iiuiiieroiis, sometiiin's ofthe external or internal linger one or both dis- 
appear, so that only three, as in the case of the Bustard or even two. as in the Ostrich 
remain. Three ofthe tour toes are irenerally directed in front, while the fourth is 
turned backwards. In the fannly I'hasianula; or Pheasan!, tribe, the hind toe is 
placed higher on the tarsus than the front ones, so that oniy 'he tip touches the 
ground, and the tarsus ofthe male is generally furnislied with one or more spuiB;80 
ID the cooimoa fowi. 




cnce fo l)irJs " Tl 

where, .hereet or c.,ean b.^a^ e. It; 'T ^''"^^ ''"' ''^^' 
-entof .,.eir manner of walking to Jber , eirT"r "', '" "" "'^•"^'^■ 
have, .n con.s.,,enc., nn nddi,L,,te o ^^7,^ 'l^' " ''' '''^''- ^'-7 
gre,ss may be not impeded just likp fl ' ^"'"' "'^' "■'^i'- P^o- 

f^"y divided [are diLin..CVtm 7 7'"' "''"' '^^^'^ ^^^ '^-'"^ 
birds have al«o a crop ^,, ,,' Jan ' ' "' ^"^J" '^^'^^ ^'-n 

ofvv,nchmay,.epeeli'o, fit en Vr '"'?'■' "" '"^""■" ^^^ 

';ke unto those which ruminate 1:1' J:,"? ■"' ^'^^"''^ •"^>' ^^^ 
^an one stomach for the n.acera.ion of thei^ ll^J; t, ^'^ "'^f'^ -"- 
-« [an except,on to the rule among birds] J'"-^ ■ ^'"^ "°''''' [^^^''^"J 
havmg only one of the necessary condemn '"'"' ^^ """"»" ''^'=''*'«J 

not being properly a predaceoul T^;; T ^ " "'"^'""^" ^■'-^' - ' 
WMh reference to its d,gestive npp ';,' V 7' ""' '""'""•"' '" ""^ ^"'« 
above mentioned. Thtre are a^rof ^ ' ^'"''^-^ "''"'« «^"-^ch 

con.radictorinessj lite , e cT, f f "^"'r^" ''-^^^ [P-^enting ,hi. 
.ince if they exh/bit one of t ^t t^' Je' 7T ^^'"""°" ^^-J 
-ess the other; hence the rule ' eve,/ '^""'^'' "'">' ^" ""' Pos- 

nature i. fierce and intractabletir """''"'' ""^'^^^ '''^-^ 

rished by such food only as teVLn '^'^' ^^^'"^ """- 

•re they prohibited." ^ ''''^^ *'" ^"'^ ^^^^I'^w, and therefore 

The learned Ab.Trhnnci u 

tary we continue ^i tThetbT" ^"' ^^'"^'"^ — ' 
dition afTccting the points we are . '"^""'"' "'' "^^"'^^ '^«- 
Pleted extract, continues to show th Tf^' '" "'^ J"«' «»'^- 
which the ancient Hebrews ^7.: 'T'n' ^"^^^^' "^-""-'-- 
ten centuries since. The adm ra d "'"^^' '"""' ^''-' '--« 

«nd wants of each of the two cts L Jf t' , ■' "' '"' ''^^^' '" ^^^ '-'-e 
by our author with lingular p^S' '^t' '%^"'^""^' '"^'^^ "P^" 
b's remarks with those in the no,e';>n I V^" "'" ^"^"^^ ^"'"^^^ 
tity ex.sts in the ruminatin.^ and di.o f " "^'^' "'^' "" 'den- 

•nd the clean birds. For h" ge en Tea^'r^^'^'"^ '' "'^' '^'-n beast, 
.peciai attention to the fact, LZteT'::'!" "'^^ ""^ ^^^ve paid 
parison. The .sophagus in b.^be . i ^ '"7 ^"^ ^^"^-^^ -- 

communicates with the first di.estir ^ '"^ ^^"''^ "'""'« "•^^k 

-omach corresponds to the fi ; 7,?"^ """."' '" ^■'■''^'- '^^'^ ^-^ 

receive only one name in H: rew ! ;"' *"^' f ^^^ ^-ons these 
••■cal.cven if the second be no a me' T'" 7" '^^" — P-t. iden- 

"some have thought). T.e foj:::::::'z 1 Z:":':"""'''' 

•* '"ne in this crnn. 


Below it, the oesophagus is again contracted, and presents further down 
a second dilatation, called the ventriculus siicccnturiatus, whose internal 
surface is perforated by a considerable number of small pores. This 
again corresponds with the manij plies of the ruminating beasts, and 
opens l)elow into the gizzard, in which the process of chymification is 
completed. This corresponds with the reed of ruminant beasts, and 
in birds that feed on flesh only, its sides are thin and membranous, but 
in those that swallow food which is harder and more diflicult to digest, it 
IS furnished with strong muscles intended to compress and to grind down 
Its contents. Its inner surface is covered with a sort of almost cartiia- 
gmous epithelium. Our commentator refers to certain exceptions to the 
rule, but to these remarks, pertinent and correct as they aie, it will be 
proper to refer, when considering the nomenclature of the animals. 
The following observations of Dr. Carpenter in his interesting work on 
Zoology, will, however, be in itself confirmation sufficiently strong of 
Abarbanel remarks. " It is impossible not to recognise ihe obvious 
analogies between the diOerent groups of Carnivorous Mammalia, and 
those of the predaceous birds. The bold and powerful eagles obviously 
resemble the lion and other large felines ; the smaller and yet more 
sanguinary falcons correspond with the smaller felines and with the 
mustelidoe ; the cowardly carrion-feeding vultures resemble the hycena 
and wild dog; whilst the owls may be likened to nocturnal viverridoBj 
we shall find that there are certain species, aquatic in their habits, and 
which are parallel, therefore, to the otters and seals."- Abarbanel 
thus continues his conmient, " Fishes are mentioned by the sacred pen- 
man after beasts, because like the latter, they have assigned them two 
distinctive signs of legality, but which birds have not ; those to which I 
have already alluded, being according to the tradition of our pious sages, 
upon whom be peace. These signs of the clean birds are, moreover, 

* We are remiiuled here of Dr. Paley's remarks in his chapter on com- 
pcmatxun. " U has been proved by the most correct experiments that the -astrie 
juice of these birds (granivormis ai.d herbivorous) will not operate u ,i, the entire 
grain, not even when softened by water or macerated in the crop. Theielore with- 
out a -rindinjr machine within its wilhont the trituration of the -izzard a 
chicken would have starved upon a heap of corn, yet, whv should a bill .md a "li- 
zard f;o together ? Why should a gizzard never be found where there are tee^h 1 
Nor does the gizzard belong to birds as such. A gizzard is not found in birds ot 
rrey. I heir Io.kJ re.pnres not to be grouii.l down in a mill. Tlie conipensatorT 
contnvarce goes no farther than the neces,ity. 1. both classes of bnds, however 
the digestive organ within (he body bear a strict and mechanical ula.ion to tiie ex- 
terna insliuuients for procuring too.l. The .oft n.embranons stomach arcmpanie. 
. hooked, notched beak : short muscular legs ; strong sharp crooked talons; th, 
cartiiagiMous stomach attends that conformation of bill and toes, which restrain, 
iiit- ujai 10 liie jjicKinj; ot seeds or the croppmjj of planlii.'' 



Mi; in general ,em,» " • ' ''""" '"^' >° ""f 

•IreaJv referred ,o . \ f'^ ' '"" JT"° "" ^'"''■""'" M™" 
other, are ,e I ej T 'l 7T.,"T """"'" '"■ ""'""" ""*. '"'' »" 
Anglican ver,i„„ """el -. " '^'"'"' '"-""r"- *"""'""■'' "' ■"""' 

A »„ecies or orjer „f L'^M , L i, i J i'^^T^ „ .ttrT'.' r 

ineluJe herel.y >l,e ,ar,ir VV ' ' '"''" """'" '''"•'' '» 

[..•«,s, ni8,,l,„rtl ,,„"'' /?Vr"*=°"''''' ""■'^- '»• »'="'' 

I'o^ -™H»"r^it::;:t;;^ri.:'z;::r;^j: ""^r- ir- 

little owl. ]5. n'jtt, fslnln^l. n ^^- °^^ [koH, 

owlj. 17. noa.jn [finshomet swan! m ^^^^J' [>'"'>l'utr, great 

[anafah, heron], 'oo. 2 ;eie; i.n, '^ f' ' ^'"'J' ''■ "^^« 

one who is well acquainted wifh i\J-. .•- -^"'": '^"')- § 15. Every 
cloture, mav eat of e^ /bird o in IT T"""''"' "'"^ "^^-- 
amination. ' Clean h rdJ.r . '. ' '" '*'" "'*' ""^ ^'''-"^ ^^- 

of course a w e.t lith J^ ""/'^^ ^^''^"^''^ ^^^ '--'"-n, it being 

.hat such i. a an M t1 ' '" ' ^'"' "'"^ ^'"-' ^'''' '^ ^^^en 

rannot readilvdistnuir ^ ""'''' ''^ § ''• "'^ -^^^ 

.upplied us ; to wi " ;,",'": ^'*^" "'" ^^•'"■^' ""^^^^^ '-- 

-ts'i t, such it i ; i? , t e "? ^^'"^ '" '' '''^' ^"'^ '^'- 

■t doe. not t is, how";; ^.'l^T T^^ '"' '^ ""^'•-^" ^ '"^ 

> vv e v(. r, >t 18 yet clean, provided it possess one of these 




three t-igns, an additional toe or claw, or it possess a crop, or thai the 
internal coat of the stomach can be peeled oil' with the hand. § 17. 
There is not among all these prohibited species any one that is notpre- 
daceous, and liavint; one of these three signs, except the percs and 
ngosnhjdJi, and the pcrcs ai.d /igosnii/ah are not tound in inhabited 
places, Ijut in de-ertsand very distant places, and at the utmost verge of 
civilization. § 18. If the slvin of the stomach is removeable with a 
knife but not with tiie iiand, and the bird [in such a case] has no other 
sign [of bi'ing unclean], althovigli it may not strike its claws in its prey, 
yet is it a doul)tiul case. If tiie stomach be tough, and [the skin] cleave 
closely to it, but by being exposed to the sun, it becomes soft and 
easily peeled by the hand, then it is permitted. § 19. The Gaonim, 
[eminent Rabbis who llourished just al'terthe completion of the Talmud] 
have declared that tliey have been traditionally cautioned against 
teaching tiie legality of a bird posse.-sing only one sign of its being clean, 
unless that one sign were that the skin of its stomach was readily peeled 
with the hand ; Inil if this one sign obtain not, although the bird possess 
a crop or an additional claw, yet can they never permit it to be consi- 
dered as clean. § 20. Every bird wliicii divides [ecpially] its paws 
vviien placed on a perch, two one way, and two another ; or that he 
seizes [his food] in the air and there eats it, is undoubtedly of the pre- 
Jaceous kind and unclean; and all which associate with the unclean, and 
approximate to them [in nature and habits] are unclean." To this the 
Yoreh Deah adds, (cli. 82, §.}), " Some assert that every fowl with 
broad beak and expanded, [palmated or webbed] feet like those of the 
goose, is well known to be non-predaceous, and is lawl'ul food, provi- 
ded it have the three signs. § 1. A person who happens to be 
from a place where they are accustomed to account as piiihibited a 
certain fowl because they have no tradition, that it is clean, and lie goes 
to a place where they have a tradition that it is of the clean species, he 
may eat thereof in tliat place, even if his intention be to return to the 
other place ; and if he went from a place vviiere they pronounce it to 
be traditionally clean, and go to another place where they Itave no such 
tradition, he can yet tat thereof. § f). Places having no tradition re- 
specting tlie character of the birds, depend upon those which have, to 
eat thereof. Some prohibit and some allow, but it is preferable to abide 
by the decision of those who prohibit." Thus particular are the direc- 
tions of the Jewish canon, respecting the means of discriminating the 
clean and luiclean birds. 

With respect to reptiles and inlets, the law thus directs, " V. 20. 
All fowls that creep, going upon cill four, shall be an abomination unto 
»/iii V 91 Vptthpsc niav ve eat. of everv flvins. creeiVmu thinir. that 



^ ";;:■ :t '"■' "".;■'?" ""'- '•"" ■ -1-— r „,„..„,.„, ,„ L! : 

snail he unclean unti the evon V oo ti. , , *^.«ii,ase, 

goeth » ,on .// f;„;"' ^^'^'^"''^^*-^'-^'"^"' "Pon the belly, a,ul whatsoever 

HM .tdted insfructums respecting birds, the text i.),l. • ..,ii r . . 

These Po on «// f '"cuMs ^diagabim] which are pciniitted.— 

signs or ,l,e..i. l„,,Kts mJu\„„,) „,,. ,,,1, I ii'«in;n,,h,ng 

iun,„in, [„eJo, ,n]1 «:', ° „' ';'; ""^"^ f^'^J "'S' f- 
gre.,er par, „f ,|,o ,„,„ and >ri 1, K i"""' "■'™'' "'"" ""» 

.hall i„. an „b;n,i„;„i„'„ „„,„',''';;;, :!:,""" '" '■" "" '■"'"' 

• n.r .l,ese yo shall l,e „„„|,,„, ,, ™" I"-"'- « h«" n .ay, llu-reCre. 
his pavv,,a„JeveT l,c«nl,r >. ' !" '"''■■""•"■■"<■ B- '" upon 

iik/ihe ;,„,, ,:::;',:;:: ":i^"=:^ -r. "t t' °",", - ' "- *'-/'. 

«„ [.,.oa>ca in ,l,e 4,. ye..] ,Ka, eve.^ "ri^:,:::,:^::, ^ 



abomination and must not be eaten,' is unnercsi=ar\', sinre it is already 
given, in a former part of the chapter, hut its intent is to show that 
every reptile besides the eight mentioned above, arc unclean and must 
not be eaten." 

Rashi ^ays, "all fowl that creep," [sherefs hansrofT, v. 20] alludes to 
those of the smaller and lower order of animals moving upon the earth, 
such as flies, gnats, locusts, &c. After givin;; the old Jewish traditional 
signs of those animals, which may be considered SDichoi^ahim, and which 
are quite identical witli those given by modern naturalists to the sa/ta- 
toria, Rashi adds " all these signs are to be found in those which come 
among us, but there are some having an extended head, but not possess- 
ing a tail, and yet belong to the species cfuisah [saltatoria] but thus, are 
we unable to discriminate correctly concerning them. In the 41st verse, 
there occurs the repetition, [to which Abarbanel also refers] because it 
implies as exceptions to the prohibition, such insects as are found in 
kalisiriy [according to some a species of cedar-fruit or fig; according to 
others, pulse, Ter. fol. lix. Choi. fol. xvii. 2.] ami the maggots in lentiles, 
which only when creeping upon the ground are prohibited. The expres- 
sion ' whatsoever goeth upon the belly,' in verse 42, refers to the serpent 

The reduplication of the words ' that goeth, &c.,' in the same verse, 
shows that the .s/H/.s/ti</«w are tobe here included. [This remark of 
Rashi, it should be observed, is like all we have (pioted above as his 
comment, nothing more than national, traditionary teachings which we 
may find in the Talmud, chiefly in the treatise Cholin. This last of his 
remarks, is from this treatise.* R. Benj. the M. Ileanich, 
show us that sJiilsJtu/in, means a kintl of worm ] '• (loin;; upon all 
four" adds Rashi, " refers here to the scorpion, and the repetition of the 
word ' all,' shows that the chccpufliect [black-beetle, Chot. fol. 67] called 
in French escarhot, is included, 'what hath more feet' alludes to the 
nadid [a reptile having many feet, Choi. ful. Ixv., and Erub. fol. viii. 
2, according to ^Mendelssohn, it is identical with the lulus of Linnopus, 
of which more presently] and the word sJirrrts a^ain repeated here, we 
know to allude to a reptile which have feet [in equal succession] from 
head to tail, anil, which is called ccntpicd [centipede.]" Such is the 
explication of llashi. In the Berayah of Toratli Cohanim, a very 
ancient commentary on Leviticus, it is explaineil, that the first " what- 
soever goeth," in verse 27, refers to the monkey tribe, and its redu- 
plication includes the Iwfcd (bittern,) cholcd (weasels of the bushes,) 
and the ad nay hasadch [ns some understand, wild men ; others 
baboons &.c.] and the kcleb Jiayham, sea dog, &c.," all of which are 
nubjects for after remark. 

riKi bif'7ii'n HK nian7 73 irnj ni pm rj i7in pai njnj'^ina manu i^k pin mo3 ^id2» 




]Maimoniiles aftor luimoraling tlic eight specicsofc/(«^a/*/w or locusts, 
prococJs to give tlie trailitional signs, which estahlisli tliem as such. 
§ 2"2. He who is well accjuaiiitoci with these and their names may eat 
of tlu'in, hut he wlio is not, examines the tliree distingushing signH, 
which they possess. All which iiave four legs and four wings, extending 
the greater part of the loiiL'th and hrcadth of their body, and having more- 
over, two spririL'ing legs, is of the clean species; although its head might 
be long, and it had a tail, it is clean, so long as it is known to he of the 
species c:/(y;irr//v. §23. Such as have not yet wings or s|)ringing feet, 
or wings covering the greater i)art of their body, but [it is known] that 
they will obtain them heieafter when they are grown, then, even at 
such early state, they are permitted." 

We have now shown the reader, perhaps at greater length than his 
patience might rer|uire, — but not more so, tiian was deemeil necessary 
for a pmper appreciation of the subject, what arc the rules for discri- 
minating the clean and unclean of beasts, fishes, birds and reptiles, 
deemed authoritative by the Hebrew people ; and it becomes us now 
to pay some attention to the second point we have to discuss ; to wit, — 
the nomenclature and nature of the enumerated animals. For such of our 
readers, who may be interested in the subject, we shall take the pains 
to exhibit a large number of the very higliest authorities, both ancient 
and modern, Jewish and Cliristian, because, necessarily a more correct 
opinion is thereby to be formed, and because they will establish one 
very important fact, with reference to the birds especially, which we 
cannot pass over. Our examination commences with the quadrupeds. 

1. T:a (f^anuil) eami-l* v. 4. T. O. k"?-:: (fiamala,) "he cliewcth the cuil but di- 
viJeih ncit tlie liocf.' S. J. T. and de U .camulldi G. T. Kainecj ; .M. id. ; B. cainelus; 
D. L.and G. caiiicl, F. caiiulu-; K. ul. ; C. S. id., M. A. id. "The root denotes 
retribution or ntuin. As a N. a eaincl iVoiu the revengeful temper of that 

* In tlie examination about to be made, the rendering of tlio Eti:;lish 
vcr-ion ^.vill iruiucdi.ilely follow the Hebrew name, while other authorities, for tlie 
sake of brevity will be e.\|)ie-sed by the followinj^ initial letters, S. J. T. will 
mean S|).a^i^h J. -wish 'I'jaii-lators "de R. de Kevna, G. T. German (Christian)^lators, M. Meudel-ohn, li. Buxtoif, F. Fur-t, "]), L. David Levy, 1'. I'arkhurst, 
G. Ge-eiiius, M. A. .Moosiph llearuch, K. Kimohi, R, Raslii, Ab. Kz. Aben Ezra, 
Ab, Abarbanel, T. (). 'rari,'um i Hikelos W. Wessely, S. Serrano, C. S. Ciitica 
Sacra, Linn. Linnceus, Cuv. C\ivier, Carp. Carpenter ; and so with other authorities 
already referred to. Where no translati<jii of the foreign names are given, they ara 
the same as the Ang. Vers., so also, when they are omitted. 

Serrano observes tliat the Spanish names by which he translates the text, are, 
except in such cases where tiadition has decidetl, only applied becau-e of their 
competition and roofs representing the characteristics and mialities of the animals 
whose names ho em])loys. The same is remarked by Wessely before giving a 
translation to the birds. " We are not familiar and cannot be assured of thtir names, 
so I follow the old commentators, some of whom were also in doubt on the matter. 
Thus I do not lay down the law aa a decided thing ; but it waa necessary to translata 




animal, wliich Bochnrt f.how3 to be so romnrkablc a-i even to becomi- a proverb 
atnoiirj t)i(wo iiation-i wlio are best acqiia'mtcd witli it-t niitnrc. Amoiifj other 
pasisajjeH from ancient writers, lie cite-i from Husil. 'But wliat marine aniniil 
can emulate the camel's resentment of injurict, ami hi^ steady ami unrelenting 
uiigei (' The reailei will hu well eiilerliiiiRil by consulting the excelli nt 
Hiul learneil Boeliart himself on this animal, v. ii. ic." — P. " It is not the 
case with the camel that his foot is covereil witli a shoe liki! hoof, ami so 
with tilt! sfidfiin and anubet, and therefore the text eaniiiit and dies not add 
the words 'and is cloven fixited ;' but in the case of the swine who does possess 
such cloven foot the words are used,"* Compare v. 7. — W. " The camel's foot is divided 
into two distinctly marked toes, although not positively cloven, which are fastened to> 
and rest upon, the elastic pad or cu-hionat the end of the f'nt. From this circumstance, 
it has been a nicely balanced question whether the cauiel, which chews (he cud, 
can be reckoned among the species called cloven-footed. It sccins to be a connect- 
ing link between those that are and tho^e that are not."— I'ict. Illus. Bib. A pecu- 
liarity of stomaci is also noticed by BufTon. " Independent of the four stomachs 
which are commonly found in ruminating animals, the camel is possessed of a fifth 
bag which serves him as a reseivoir to retain the w.iter. The tifih stomach is pe- 
culiar to the camel, <tc." " Water is constantly retaiiu il from the great masses of 
cells which cover the sides of their paunch, the other ruminants have nothing of the 
kind — Cuv. Order vi. Bisuica (Pecora Lin) fron. xxix. — Stewart. It is without 
horns and of the order Ruminantia." — Stark, ite. R. Ab. Ez. and Ab. ---the same. 
Where such unanimity of opinion exists we cannot but see the correctness of the 
Aglican version.. 

2. )tv/ (shafan) coney, "he chcweth the cud but divideth not the hoof;" 
T. 0. KT3U (tapza) ; S. J. T. tt de R., coiiejo, which also means rabbit. 
G. T. it M. Kauinchen ; B. cuniculus, mtis montanus ; D. L. ct(r. coney; F. mus 
jaculus Linn.; Sept. Choirogrullios. K. id. C. S. id. "The dry, hot nature of 
the Shafan is well known," Ab. " It is accustfuned to resort to concealment in 
rocks, as it is said, ' the Shefanim are but a feeble folk, yet they make their houses in 
the rock.' Again in Ps. 104, 18. The word 'divideth' is in the Iliphil form, parti- 
ciple when applied to the camel, in the future tense to the coney, and to the hare in 
the preterite, which may be meant to teach this. Do not hink that those bom 
without dividing the hoof will hereafter do so, for the text couples the 'not' with 
the future tense ; or that it may have had a divided hoof which is now not distin- 
gui.shalilo, for the text joins another 'not' with the past ten-e " — \V. "The 
meaning of the root Shafan is to cover in, conceal. A:^ a noun Shafan 
means a kind of unclean animal, so called from hiding itself in holes or clefts of 

* R. Wess' ly, from whose Hebrew comment Ibis is an extract, next condemns tha 
learned Rashi for his tran-lation of Parituh. We do not think that it is at all neccs 
iary to prolong such an inquiry, having already fiirly given Wessely's reasons lor 
dissent. For our part we do not think the great Rashi's remarkable acuteness and 
research has at all failed him. He cm in this matter be very easily defended, and 
were this the place, even we would make an humble atteinjit so to do. We respect 
Wessely as a classical Hebrew scholar and able grammarian, but we cannot help 
feeling "that in common with but too many modern Jewi-ii critics, especially with 
his countrymen — while they disp'ay much ingenuity — they are but too apt to for- 
get that if ilifferent premises are set up, in criticising some of the old Mcp/inranhim 
very different conclusions will be arrived at. We repeat that the translation of 
Rashi, we think, every way correct and every way ilefensible by a mere tyro. 
But nothing is more piobablu than that an expression should be differently unJer- 
•tood bv different cirties. 





rocks. IV. riv. 18, Pmv. xxx. 2«. In tlio soo.rul f<li(i.,n of thii work. I f.llowod 
B<K-l.;i.fs i„t..,|.n t,.ti..n .(Sha/inhy tlic Jerboa, i. r. the J/«.t Jacnlu^ orjiunping 
MdiiM'; Ixit I am now inrlitU'.l to cinbrace Dr. Sliaw's npininn, that it M^'nifi(rs the 
Damnn fsrarl. <ir Ur.wW Lamb, 'an niiimal, say« lie (Traveln, p. ,348),'()f .Mount 
Libaiuis, tlioiit,'!i roinmon in other putts of this country [namely Syria and I'ales- 
tine]. It is ii haruiie-s creature, of the same .-izo nml quality as the rabbit, and 
with the like, iu-nirvalinf,' po-ture, and .lispoMtion of the foreteeth. Hut it i» of b 
browner colour, with -mailer ryes, and a bead more p iuted. like the marmot',-. A§ 
'th usual r.-i<l<iir,. ami refu^'c is in the boles and clefts of the rocks, we have so far 
a more prcMiuiptive proof that this creature may be the Shapan of the Scriptures, 
than the Jerboa, which latter he says. p. HT. he had never seen burrow among 
the rocks, but either in a stiff hiamy earth, or else in the loose laml of the Sahara, 
especially where it is supported by the spr.'U.linj,' nv.ts of spartum, spuige-laurel, 
or other the like plants. Mr. Bruce likewise opposes the Jerboa's (ol which be has 
given a curious prin' and a particular description in liisTr.ivels, vol. v. p 121), being 
the Shafan of the Scriptures, and thus sums up his observations on this subject, p. 
127. • It is the character of tlieSaplian i,'ivcn in the Scripture, that he is gre(,'ario'us. 
that he lives in houses made in the rock, that he is ciiHtiuiruished for bi^ feebleness, 
which he supplies with his wisdom. (See I'rov. xxx. 24, 20, and Ps.civ 18 in Ileb)! 
None of those clmructeri.-tics a-ree with the Jerboa : and, therefore, though ho 
chews the cud iu common with some others, and was in great plenty in Judea go 
as to be known to Solomon, yet he cannot be the -•a,)han of the Scripture. And in 
a following section Mr. I!r>ice contends that this is no other than what is called in 
Arabia and Syria, Israels Sheep [the Daman Israel of Shaw] and in Amhara. 
Ashkuko, of which animal also he has given a print, p. 139, and a minute descrip- 
Jion, ami thus applies to biin, p. 144, the characters just mentioned. ' He is above 
all oilier animals so much attached to the rock, that I never once saw him on the 
ground and from among large stones in the mouth of caves, where is his constant 
residence: be is gregarious, an<l lives in families. He is in Judea, Palestine and 
Arabia, and consequently must have been familiar to Solomon.— Prov. xxx. 24 2B 
Tcry obviously fix the Ashkoks to be the Sapban, for the weaknc- here mentioned 
seems to allude to his feet, and bow inadequate these are to dig holes in the rock, 
where yet, Imwever, he h.dges. The-e are perfectly round : very pulpy or fleshy'. 
BO liable to be excoriated or hurt, and of a soft fle-hy substance. Notwitb-tanding 
wliicb they build hou-es in the very hardest rocks, more inaccessible than those of 
the rabbit, and iu which they abide in greater safety, not by exertion of stren-th, 
for they have it not, (f r they are truly as Solomon says a/r6/c folk,) but by their 
own sagacity and judgment, and therefore are justly described "as wise. Lastly, 
what leaves the thing without doubt is, that some of the Arabs particularly Damir 
eay, that the Sa|)lmn had no tail : that it is less than a cat and lives in houses, that 
IS, not hou-e.s will, nun, as there are few of these in the country where the Saphan 
IS : but that he builds houses, or nests of straw, as Solomon has said of him, in con- 
tradistinction to the rabbit, and rat, and th.)se other animals that burrow in the 
ground who cannot be said to build h-Misos, as is exi)icssly said of him.' Thus Mr 
Bruce : an.l for farther satisfaction I refer the reader to his account of the Jerboii". 
and Ashkoko. I add that Jerome, in his epistle to Suniaand Fretcla. cited by Boch- 
art, says the Shefauim are a kin.l of ■ animal not longer than a hedge-hog, resemb- 
ling a mouse and a bear.' (The latter, I suppose, in the clumsiness of its feet). 
Whence in Palestine it is called arktomus q. d. the bearmousi ; and that there it 



pTcnt nhiindnnrp of lliis ponu<< in thiwo cuintiifs, nnd tlint tlipy nro rIwoj"* ^rnnt 
to dwell ill tlie ' cavt-rns of tlic rocki, niul raves of the cartli.' This desciiplion 
well aj^ruea with Mr. Bruce's account of the A^hkoko. And as lhi^ animal beiirH a 
»ery considerable resemblance to tiie rabbit, with which >pain nnciently abounded, 
it is not iiiiprobible, but the I'lieiiiciaiH niii^bt, from Saphail, call tliat Country 
Saphania. llencu are derived its Greek, Latin and more modern iiaines ; and uc- 
cordin^jly, on the reverse of a niediil of the Emperor A'lrian, (i^iven by Scheuehzer, 
fab ( (;>(.\xv ) Spain is re()rescnte(l as a woman sittini^ on the t^round with a rabbit 
•quattin^ on her roljc." — 1'. "That the shafan rannot be identifii'd with the coney 
or rabbit is very plain. The rabbit is not an Asiatic aininal, ami it w very from 
beiiii{ >oliiitious uf a rocky habitation, which is the distingui^hin;,' characleri'-lic of 
the Mrtyiirt mentioned in I'rov. xxx. "Jtl. Some, theretore, supjxi^o the Jeiboa to 
be iiiteiide,!. * * The ijeiieral accuracy of Bruce's account ha-, been atle-ud by 
more recent observations. It is so much an animal of the rick that Bruce -ays ho 
fjcvcr saw one on the ground or from among the larije stones at the mouths of tlia 
caves, <tc., in which it resid(!s. * * Tliey certainly chew the cud as the is 
naid to do in Lev. xi. 6." " They are wise in their choice of habitations peculiarly suit- 
ed to their con lition, and they mitjht be particularly mentioned in this view from the 
fact that animals of the class to which lliey belong, are u-ually inhabitants of tho 
plains. The flesh of the Sliaphan was f irbidden to the Hebrews : and in like manner 
the Mahnmetins and Chri-tians of the Last equally abstain from the flesh of the 
Daman." I'ict. Illus. Bib. "There is a curious genus of small animals inhabitiag the 
rocky districts of Africa and Syria which is intermediate in its character between the 
Tapir and Rhinoc'ros, but presents several points of resemblance to the Kodentia. 
This is the Daman or Ilyrax, an active fur-covered little animal ; something called 
the Rock-Uabbit. and probably the Cony referred to in the Book of Proverbs. Its 
■keleton closely resembles that of a Rhinoceros in miniature, and its molar tee h are 
formed in the same maniu'r : the feet liavc four toes, which are tipped with hoof- 
like nails, whilst the hind feet have three ; of which the innermost is furnished with 
a long claw-like nail. The best brown species are the Capo Hyrax, whicii inhabits 
Southern Africa : and the Syrian Uyrax of Syria, Arabia, and Abyssinia, lioth 
these are active, hairy animals, somewhat larger than Habbits, living in families, and 
taking up their abode in caves or crevices in the sides of rocks ; they live upon the 
young shoots of shrubs and upon herbs and grass, an I tliey are playful in their 
habits, and docile and familiar in captivity." According to the same authority the 
Jerboa is an inteimeiliate link between the Squirrels and Rats, it is distinguished by 
the enormous developement of its hind legs and tail, resembling the kangaroo. It is a 
native of Syria, Ac, mown to the ancients under the name of Dipus. Mewart ranks 
the Jeiboa among the Digitata, and says it burrows in the ground. We have, however, 
made this investigation much longer than proper for the limits we should set down. 
The result of an extended inquiry, has led us to adopt the opinion that the fhafun ig 
identical with the Daman or Jli/rax, and although this is now classed by the most 
respectable naturalists, among the order Pacliydermata, which as an order of the 
Mammalia <lo not ruminate, yet is it to be remembered that the same authorities 
show us that the ordinary Pachyderviata (under which the Daman is classed) 
" appr.)ximate the Ruminants in various parts of the skeleton, nnd even in the com- 
plication of the stomach" and " the stomach of the Damans is divided into two saw; 
their ccECum is very large, and the colon has several dilatations, and is also furnished 
with two appendages about the middle analogous to the two coeca of birds," sea 
Uuviei, Hegne Animal. 




3. nZ'i-iH (:irn.'bot) harr. V. fl, " he iliiwctli tlic nid, but ilivi.lcth not tlio li^xif." 

0. KSrK fiirii.'>':i). H. J. T. lui.l ill- I' lif>bro;(}. T. and M. Jmiisc , F. l.-pun ; 
Sept. (Imsiji. 1114 ; fiW hiirr. " Kinin r"K (arali) to rro/>, ftiul a-j (nib) thr prmlue' 
o/V/c ;/ri>'ni./ — the lui.-" -tlux- ariiin:iU bcin;^ VPiy loin.irkab'i- fur 'loxtroyinj^ the 
friiiN iif till' I'arth. llixliart who (,'iv(S thi-i iiitorpri'talinii of tin- wonl, i-xccUi'iitly 
<!• frihU It liy -Imwiiii,' fiDiii lii-tiiiv dial hires have at (htfiTcnt tiiiic-* df-.ihitrd the 
ishind- I 1 In-, A't) |.;.hi I and Carpatlun. See liis Wiiik-. veil. ii. fiii aiiil '.•'J,')." — 
P. •' The liari'-," <av-i Cuvi T, ' liavc a vory di--tiiutive ('harartiT in their Mipcri'ir 
inri^ors bcin,'(!'iublc ; th;it i-; to --ay, then' is anothir of sisiall ^iz'' bcliiiid t-ach of 

tlicm " — rhi> i- iiiiitic ■! witli tl IdTahiuiilic definition to '.vhich Wi- haw alrt'iuly 

rcfcircd.on ]i, if, AIiIioul,'Ii phiocd iinKnitj the Uttdrutiahy n>odeiri patiirali^ti. it 
iri to be ob-ei ved tlial the pai lial diviinii in its -tomai li (-ee ('arpcntei's /.oohij^v, 7 

1, p. 'JCiS) wuulil Well w.Mrant it- clas^ilication atium^' tbi; Uuminanlin v here tlie text 
phices it. 

4. i'ir(eb,izir) -wiiio, V. 7. " bp dividetli tlic boof and is'n fnotod, yet he 
obewitb not tlio cuil." T. O. k— in (otiazayra) S. J. T. and do R. (lucrro; G. T. 
and M. M:h\veiii ; H. and F. porcu'*. " Tlie root m^an^ to oncotnpass. As n N., a bog 
01 boar, so called, (lorhap-, fioin liis round slmpe ■when fat, whicli is bis natural state ; 
TotuH teres atijur rolitiiilif." — I'. Order Pachydcrmnta. We .-.ball bavo reason to 
speak of the nature and habits of the bwine, whin incjuiring into the third point of 
diseusftinn laid down. We now pa^s on to the birds.* 

1. -'r: (nether) e.i','le, V. m. T. O. H-^vi (ni-bra) S. J. T. and dp Tl. aguila; 
G. T. and M. adler ; H. and F. aguila ; D. L. and ft. paple. "Tlip root means to lace- 
rate, tear in pieces. The eajjlu species is eminent for i apacity and tearing their prey 
in pieces, for wliicb purpo-;'- they are furuir-bed with beaks or talons remarkably 
strong. " — P. "'I'hu a~-(rtiwii e^four sages that the eagle has no udiii.. rial claw, has 
been attacked, but I, iny-elf, have ox.miined one, found in my native place, and found 

*In Leviticus, twenty species of unclean lnnls are ennumerated. wliile Deuteronomy 
epecilies twenty one. We cite the tollowing leeoncilemeiit of the apparent eoiitiadic- 
tion from the " Conciliator" of It. Mena>>eh ben Israel, Mr. F,. H. I^iiido's transla- 
tion. " In >i|)linl' (which is adopted by Uashi) it says, in ssolutjoii ol this doubt, that 
the difTerenee between Leviticus anil Deuteronomy consists in the former saying 
n"Nn HKi PKnn pni • Ami the vulture and the kite unci their species,' whereas Deute- 
ronomy has it r\Yl^ n-im n-Nn r\10 nKsni. Here the raak is named, whicli is not in 
Leviticus ; there is also aiiollier ditlerence in Deuteronomy, sayini;, ilin/tili instead of 
duali as in Leviticus, the tyijr/ heing in jilace ol the ali'iih which lieini; says 
that n"i n>K nn Uitiia, ^'lya, Dayii. avi'. all tlie same species o( bird, hut liaviii!; 
various appellations fioiu their ditteieiit properties ; so that there is no dlrterence 
between the two passages, one only having an additional name, al'hoiigh of the 
•ame s|)ecies. 'I'lie dilitTence between the words (/(«;/) and n/ir// is nothing;, tor the 
Hebrew lany;uai;e admits this change of letter. (See note on question, 132.) 
The learned Abi n Fzra says, that ruah is the denotiiination of the j,'eiius which 
includes the d'lirreiit biids mentioned, whereby the ohjection is al.-;** answered, tor 
th« raah mentioned in Deutei-oiiomv, is not a liistiiu t species, but the name ot the 
genus. This author avails himself ot' what is said of th.e patriarch Ahraham, when, 
by the command of tJod, he took 'a young heifer, a K^^t. a ram, a turtledove. 
and pigeon.' The scripture lelales that he divided all in two, e.xcept the bird 
called -nUi' (which is applied to birds ;;eiierally) and in that place, it is usimI instead 
of iTl (a turtle dove.) which was mentioned belore. R. Le'/i Ben (iershon holds 
that lUiah and riiah is: the same hird which from being sharp sighted and llyinirquickly. 
had both names ^'iveii it in Hebrew, signilyin^ those two properties, ruan being 
derived Irom !he veih raah • to see,' and ihiak from ihe verb daah Mo fly.' and Deutero- 
nomy, to avoid error, and I'or greater perspeeuity ennumera!. s both, without, 
however, adding another species, and he understands dayah and ai, ; to be the same, 
being couuaouiy caiieu by boiii names: so the verseis thereby agree." 

OF THE ur.Bncws. 

that it li^'l no xuch rluw." — W. 



(• H rl;\-"^('il i)v Ctirior among 

the Arriiiitrrf or Ipinl-* (if prcv. wliich .jrc, hi' -ny^. liki; tin- ('•trnivorn arnon^ 
qiirulriiiM'd-. " Thrv arc pre finin»;nl fur «treiii(lli," nililc ( 'arptriti-r, " nii'l alia, k 
not only birds for tlicii prey, but thu stnuilor ijiiadriipi'dH al-«, surli m tlit; liare, 
nhtH'p, fawns, rotbiuk-i, \,c." 

2 C^S (pen") o-ifi.i'^c. T. <». -ly (n^jar) S .IT and dc R azor ; (i. T. Iialnclit 
(liawk or 1,'os, liawk, al-o of tlic order Arrlpi'rit) \|. In iiiljroili'T and --niall Mack 
('!U,''<' ; I!, and I'", o.^ifric^a " I'orn-i i-i a l;ir_'i" hird fo'iii I ratlirr in ili'-crfs than in- 
hahitrd place-, and R. Voiiah, siiith that it i-i identical with tli ■ Araliic A^ah'^K. 
The root 'IK alls to l)r<ak.lieMCO the remark of the ' 'ritica ^-acra '■wiihstniiirth of l)oak 
or talons -he hreaketli her prey ; ri"//irn r.^t ari!< ,/iiimiii i/nn lii.vrta icolit. ini/uit 
/i. /lurid, ah ini'iu/it fi'^in (liti,r. Al'i arcijiHrnn. I'fl ifjiiiht i/' nits jiutjtil. Alii 
Gr'//'li'iiii iiiafiiiif. I/,i Srj)tu,i;iiut(t I'iialJ. I!)- Vuljat. nrtiint." -Asa noim a 
species of ( a;;le called tiy tiip Romans ons'ifrnii'i or b tnr hrrakir, Ixcaiise he not only 
devoiirs the flesli, evr'n breaks and -wallows the bones of In- [irey. Coinp. 
Mic. iii. n-, and see ftochart, vol. iii. IHii, itc." — V. " Accord ini; to most of the 
tran-lators, it means a kind of eatjle. " — \V. Order Accipities, Cuv. 

a. re:iv (n^'o-niyah) ospray ; l". <). K'tv (ngasya) S. J T. .-inercjon (martin, 
also the yellow le^'ijed falcon, Fiilco Elrsalou Linn. Order Accipiires) (',, T. fi-ciinar, 
fisdiadler C ea ea;^'le) M. -chwarzen adler (Mack e:iylo) 15, llali(eetiis, (-peciei 
nfinild). F. a(iMiln' specM-. a vi-iis y.-r-picacitate (-lob SO.eO). Crit. Sac. hali- 
Cftitus, a marine eaj^'le, so called fiotn its shar]) vi-ion, (juia (r/rTsx,? .so//t ro'lion in- 
tucri poteH, Pliu. 1. 10. c. n, " called tlie black ea-le. accordinjj to JJochart, from its 
great strnirfth in proportion tn its size. * • 'J'hc Tar;,'um renders it iiya/iya 
[stron;^ one] and so preserves the idea. • • Bute, Crit. lljb. explains it 
by the vlihiiiiij kilt; from n-: ?ieii<ifi its noise and ty Hws impudent, strong and 
bold di-positioi, and in hi- note on Lev. 5.i. i:;, he says tliey litive on the ^outh 
Downs in Sussex, a whinln;.; ki'.e which may be heard when very high in tl\e air. 
• • Whatever bird inten led, I think it was s) named from »(//<■< its strength, 
and h/v"/' its nioaitiiig." — 1'. ' Pandion haliieetus. Some think the black eagle ia 
here intended, but the proijabilities are at least equally in favor uf our version." — 
rict. lllus. Rib. Order Accipitres, Cuv. 

I. PNi ('i.i.i'..) vulture, V. 11, T. O, KP't (diUi) .'^. .5. T. milano (ijleao kite) falco 
milorin Linn. (J. T. (Jeier ; M. Wei . en h.diicht (white hawk) B. milvns. 
" Vulture, cluuiiied in Ueiiteroiiomy intonni probaMy tlirouuli an error nl tlni copy- 
ists" — V. ■■ I'liinary nieuniiig lliulit, the bird is so called from llie extreme rapidity 
of Its ib^ht"— K. "The kite is called in Hebrew, Lev. 11, 11, iJtiiih of Hying, 
Deut. 1 I, lo. /'i'"'' of .seeiii'j;. lor the.' kite llie'di with violeiict , and 's|iieth her prey 
from larre." — Crit. Sa'-. '■ A kite or gleail, .so V'ulg. inihus, wlin h is remarkable 
for llvin", or, as it were, sailing in tlie air with expanded wings. Tlius our English 
glead is Iroiii the v. to glide, ^c,"— 1'. Order Accipitres, Cuv. 

5. n'K (ayah) kite ; v. II., T. O. k.-i'S-iu (t;iraph"ta) S. .L T. bueytre, G. T. meihe 
M. Sciiwr.rzen hahicht (black hawk) B. carnix (crov\ , roo!;.) " An unclean prc- 
daceous bud ol tlie vulture species, probably so called fioin its cry," — F. Crit. 
Sac. corni.x. '• \ species of unclean bird, remarkable for its sharp sight. See 
Job xxviii, Liv. xi, 11. Heut. xiv, 1,3. In the first passai;e, the F.iighsli translation 
renders it a vulture, in the two latter, a kite, I should rather think it means a vulture 
and that this bird was so called cither from its ravenousness, or, from the cry it 
makes," — 1'. "In Deuteronomy, the text has ' the raali, and the ayah and the 

uavali aiLei 11:3 kiiiu. 

CO aim ill v,i 

^l^tAkX UltU UUUL* 




are identical, as arc the ayali and dayuli ; and according to R. Abuah (!oc. cit) the 
daah, raah, ayah and dayah, a-e nieirly diflerent nanies Jor the one bird, • which is 
called raah. uhich in Ilchrew means to see, because of its quirk sis;hlrdness ; daah 
from it.s rapid ;/ioi.-(vm'n/, the expression moving, 'as the ea-le,' beinu' proverbial 
and the ayaii may also be thus called, Llor the word aych means vhere in Hebrew] 
aii.l the exclamation (lyt'h is ilie most likely to rise to the lips when tins bird is in 
fli.'ht, since it is so .0011 lost in view. These <iualilies are more particu'arly found 
,n°that bird wliich in Ccraian is called habicfit (ha'.vk)"-W. " It is so called 
because it is ac iistomcd to frequent known places (eyim)"— Ab. Kz.; .Milvus, Order, 
Acc'pitres, Cuv. 

6. an^V (iigoreb) raven, v. l."), T. O. xan^j; (ngoorba) S. J. T. cuervo ; G. 1. and 
M. rabcn ; 15. and F. corvus. The root means to mix, hence the followiii- remarks 
of Bochait and Aben Ezra. " The color of a crow or ruven is not a dead, "..ut a 
glossy sbiiiini; black like silk, and so 1, properly a mixture of darkness and .-i:lendour. " 

" It is of theoame signification as ngereb. i.e., evening, •mplying mixture," " Order 
Passerinu; " It scents carrion at the distance of a league, and also feeds upon frui' 
and small animals, even carrying off poultry," Cuv. 

7. n^yn na (bat l.avan:,a.iah) owl, v. If., T. O. r3 (bat nanga- 
nieta. S. J. T. h3Ja del aiitiUo, Ser. and Cass, de R. abestru/. (Slrix Aluco, Linn.) 
G. T. strau<s (ostrich) B. uiula. " It resides chiefly in desert places, and has a 
liK'ubrious cry"— K. " Ostrich, so called fiom their loud crying to each other. ' In 
the lo.iesjmest part of the night,' says Dr. Shaw, ' th»y frequently made a very 
doleUii and hideous noise which would sometimes be like the roaring ot a lion ; at 
other times it would bear a near resemblance to the hoarse voices of other quad- 
rupeds, particularly of the bull and ox. 1 have olten heard ;.rm groan as il 111 the 
.Greatest agonies, Kc J^c. &c. See the continuation of I'arkhursfs >iiteresting 
remarks on l.arn. iv. 3. etc. Rad. r^:v " Aben Kzra on Exodus xxiii, It), writes, 
that the llesh of the yanganah is dry as wood, that men eat it not, because of its 
lack of moisture, but' the young female's is eatable as possessing some. The 
additional word but, our sages say, refers to the egg of the yanganah." " Some 
say that the bat [nieaninir daughter or young f.male] hayanjanah present 
a species in which tli-re is no male found ;-that the word in the plural has a mas- 
culine termination. i> nothing, sine, we find it frequently applied tofen.enine nouns, 
e. g. yangulim, rec" lim,"- Ab. Ez. There is certainly a female Ostrich, wherefore 
Ab. Ez. cannot refer to 'hem. Cuvier classes the owls among the Accipitr.M and 
the ostriches among the Gralloe or stilt birds, which "feed upon fish, reptiles, worms 

and insects." 

8. DonnCtachmass) night nawk; T. 0. Krsf (tsitsa) S. J. 'l. mochuelo (horn-owl) 
gtrix otus, Linn. G. T. nachteule; M. schwalbe ; •' So called becau-e he violently 
pursues other birds seizin- them for his prey, thus the Targum Yoru^halmi trans- 
lates it i:halootita"—\i. The root means violence, rapine. '-The i.xx. render it 
glauka and Vulj;. noctuam. 1 think, therefore, it was some kind of owl. and consider- 
inr the radical import of its Hebrew name, it might not improbably be that which 
Hasselqui>t, Travels, p I'JtJ, describes as " of the size of the cominun owl. and being 
very ravenous in .Syria, and in the evenings, if the windows are left ojien flying into 
houses and killing,' infmts, unless they are carefully watched, wherefoiethe women 
are much afraid of it.'-P. " Some say it is the male of the bat h.iyanganah."-M. 
" Schwalbe, it is of tlie predaceous kind ; some consider it to be the facloii, and this 

• See note. p. 64. 



name well becomes it, from its comparative fierceness among birJs." — W. " From 
the root ehamas violence."— Ab. Ez. Order Accipitres, Cuv. 

9. fpv (shachaf)cuckow, T. O., KSnip iisy (taippor shachafa) S.J. T., ccrcota (or g«r- 
eeta, like Cass, de R. and Ser. widgeon, a kind of small wild duck Anas querqwdulm 
Linn). O. T., kukuk ; B., laras (sea mew). " Larua ; according to Kimchi, a bird 
laboring under phtliisis." So Furst translates sbachafat. " CEsalon Jun. accipitria 
species, circulus, rather the cuckow. Pagnine n-nderetli it Phthitica."— Grit. Sac. 
"The sea gull or mew, thus called on account of ita leanness, slendemess or small 
quantity of flesh, in proportion to its apparent pize. lxx caron, Vulg. cams. " It is 
of the same signification as shachafat and implies atrophy, consumption ; the bird is 
an exceedingly thin one." — Ab. Ez. Cuvier places the cuckoos among tiie Scan- 
Bores (climbers). " The cuckoos liave a lax stomach, cceca like those of the owls 
and no gall bladder." 

10. V5 (nets) hawk ; T. O., kv: (nat-v) S. J. T., gavilan (sparrow hawk, Faleo 
Nisvs Linn.) O. T. and M., epcrbor (sp t ow hawl:). B., accipiter. " From the root 
rn (nitsate^ fly, so called: according to Aben Ezra, the Baal haturim and Shelomoh 
Yitschaki, from its being so constantly on the wing . "— F. " It is a bird with which 
men hunt, and it will return to the hand of ita master."— K. Grit. Sac. Accipiter ; 
" It occurs in Gholin Per. El. Ter. where it is translated like Rashi by t)ie French 
wordau?o!ir(gashawk)."— M. H. " The hawk, from his rapid flight, or shooting 
away in flying ; occ. Lev. xi. 16, Deut. xiv. 16, Job. xxxix. 26, which last passage 
seems to refer to the migration of the hawk towards the south, for most of the genus 
of hawks are birds of passage."— P. " When its plumage is ample, it is constantly 
on the wing, and flies southward for heat."— Ab. Ez. Order Accipitres, Cuv. 

11. D-13 (kos) little owl ; T. O. Knp (karya) S. J. T. halcon, (falcon hawk. F^oo 
Linn.) G. T. kauzlein ; M. huhu ; B. bubo ; F. pelican ; a bird having a cup-likt 
appendage to the craw." " R. Selomoh explains it by the foreign word, falcon, 
which resides with men, and is employed by them in hunting."— K. "Targ. and 
in Mas. Nidah it is translated karia and ke; . pa, and Rashi explains it as a birO 
which crie3 during the night, and having 8< Uhing human about the appearance of 
its face. Compare Ps. cii. 6."— W. Perhaps the Kos is identical with the 
Lilith (Isa. xxxiv. 14) which is no doubt the bubo maximum or eagle owl. In the 
travels of Captains Irby and Mangles, the following observation occurs in their ac- 
count of Petra. " The screaming of eagles, hawks, and owls which were soaring 
above our hea(' > in considerable numbers, seemingly annoyed at any one approach- 
ing their lonely habitation, added much to the singularity of the scene." Order Ac- 
cipitres, Guv. 

'l2. nbi:- (Bhelach) cormorant ; T. 0. Krt'bir (shaliluna) S.J. T. and de R. gavista, 
gavia, (sea-gull, gull, lams Linn.) G. T. schwan ; M. fischreiher (heron) B. niergua 
"According to the Gemara, a bird thitt draws up fish from the water [Ghol. fol. 
Ixiii, 1,] LXX, katarraktcs ; Vulg., mergulus,"- F. " Cormorant is so named in Hebrew 
of shalach, of casting itself down into the water"— Ainsw. ap. Crit. Sac. " Root 
means to cast -. as a N. a kind of sea fowl, the cataract or plungcon. Its Heb. and 
Greek names are taken from a very remarkable quality, which is, that when it rcea 
in the water, the fish on which it preys, it flies U)a considerable height, tlien collecU 
its wings close to its sides, and darts down like an arrow, on its prey. See Bochart 
vol. iii, p. J78, and Johnston Nat. Hist, de Avibus p. 94, who adds that by thus 
darting down it plunges a cubit depth into the water whence evidently, iia tngii«fa 
name plungeon,"—V. " Under the common appelation shalach the shag and some 
other species of Phalacrocarax or cormorant were included." Pict Illust. Bib. where 



Ji \ 

we a most intcropting account of them. " An conveyed by the Targumist, a bird 
drawinfj fi~li from the water" — II. *' Some say a bird that is accustomed to cast 
Its young" — Ab. F.z. " Order Palmipedes (having -webbod toes) their voracity ia 
proverbial," Cuv. 

13. f\wr (yanshoof) great owl ; T. 0., K3iS<p (kifufa) S. J. T,, Icchuza (stirix 
passenina Linn^ O. T., huhu ; M, nachteule ; B., noctua ; "According to 
Kimchi, a bird that flies or cries at night only (nachteule) so also the Targu- 
mist ; according to Aben Ezra a bird only flying at evening because it cannot bear 
the light of the sun" — F. " An owl or bat, because it flieth at twilight."— Crit 
Sac. Parkhurst, however, says that this interpretation , ao generally accepted among 
Jews and Christians, is very forced, and endeavours to show at length that the Ibia 
m meant ; but we think hi.^ position quite untenable, and this for the reasons he him- 
self states. " Rashi says that the kos (little owl) and the ynnshoof are called in 
French, choucttc (screech — owl) and there is another species like it which is called 
hibou, (owl). Ra«hi does not mean to say here that the Kos and Yamhoof are one 
and the same species, but they are placed together in one verse because they are 
alike in respect to crying out at night." — \V. Order Accipitrcs, Cuv. 

14. n-:r:n (tinshemet)swan ; v. 18, T. 0., Kmi (bavta) S.J.T., calamon(purple water 
hen) G. T., and M., flodermaus (bat) B., mouedula. " Yitschaki understands it 
venpertilionis, like the mouse that flies at nights (bats), and AbenEzra adds it is so 
called from the exclamation □u' (shorn) there ! made on beholding it, and thus does 
the Targumist render it bavta (and not cavta as in many readings). Nevertheless 
it appears to be a kind of marine bird, and so the Seventy render it ibin, porphurioa 
sea fowl or swan, it is also the name of a four footed reptile, <tc." — F. " Perhaps a 
species of owl so called from its breathing in a strong and audible manner, as if 
snoring. But as in both those passages, particularly in tlie former, it is mentioned 
among the water fowls, and as the lxx in the latter, appear to have rendered it by 
the Ibis (a ppecies of bird not unUke the heron) and the Vulg., in the former by 
cygnum the swan ; it should rather seem to denote some water fowl, and that (ac- 
cording to its derivation) remarkable for its manner of breathing. And therefore I 
think the conjecture of the learned Michaclis (whom see, Recueil de Questions p. 
221) that it may mean the goose which every one knows is remarkable for ita 

manner of breathing out, or hissing when provoked, deserves consideration." P. 

[according to our opinion, bnt very little] "It is the French chauve sourii, and like the 
mouse tliat flies at night ; and the tinshcmet which is mentioned among reptiles ia 
similar, and has no eyes, it is called talpa" — R. "Swan, order Palmipedes, Ibia 
order Grallcc. Tlie sacred Ibis, was adored by the Egyptians because it devoured 
serpents, &c." — Cuv. 

15. HKp (kaat) pelican; T. O., KHKp (kata) S. J. T., cernicolo, Cass de R., clone 
(Falco TinuiiculusLinn.) G. T., rohrdommel (bittern) M., pelican ; B., platea, peli- 
canUB. " A bird of the waters or desert which regurgitates what it swallows in ita 
hunger (pelican). '' R. Judah saith in the Talmud that the kaat is identical with 
the keck-, and in tlie Jeru.salem Talmud R. Ishinaol teaches the same. In the 
Mishna there nrciirs the expression ' anil not with the oil of keck.^ (See Section 
Bam6 Madlikin). And in the Gemaia the question is put as to what is meant 
by the oil of keck ? which Shemuel answers by saying it is a water bird of that 
name." — K. "Platea avis, pelecanus, a vomitu. Conchas en im calore venlris 
coctas, rursus evomit, ut testis rejectis esculerita seligat ut scribit I'lin. Lib. 10, 
cap. 40, et Aristol. lib. 9, cap. 10, de Histor. Animal, &c."— Crit. Sac. " Root 
ka to vomit ; — the pelican ; the principal food of the pelican or onocrotabus ia 



shell fish, which it is said 1o swallow, shells and all, and afterwards, when by the 
heat of its stomach, the shells begin to open, to vomit them up again and pick out the 
fish. See the continuation ot Parkhurst's lengthy and interesting remarks under 
the cited root. This just quoted remark is Vf riliod, and we might say ihe very ex- 
prpssinna fniind, perhaps unknown to him, in the Talmud Treat. Choi. p. 73, refer- 
red to by Aben Ezra and Wesscly, in their comments. Order Palmipedes, Cuv. 

16. on-i (racharii) gier eagle ; T. O., xpnp-i (rakrayka) S. .1. T., pelicano (Pole- 
canus onocrotalus' Linn.) M., specht ; B., nierops (bee tatchcr). " A bird cf thi; 
vulture kind, so called from its love to its youHg, [its root means to have compas 
Bion, like chasidah, a stork from chesed mercy] vultur pereuopterus The 
word used by the Targum has reference to its green color."— F. The remarks of 
Kimchi are embraced in the foregoing quotation from Furst. " Bochart, vol. iii. has 
taken great pains to prove that it means a kind of vulture which the Arabs call by 
the same names. So Dr. Shaw's Travels, p. 449, takes it for the Pcrenopteros or 
Oripelargos called by the Turks Jck Bobba, which signifies white father, a name 
given it, partly out of the reverence they have foi it, partly from the color of its 
plumage : though in the other (latter) respect it diffeis little from the stork, being 
black in several places. It is as big as a large capon, and exactly like the figure 
which Gesner, lib. iii. He. Avib. hath given us of it. These birds, like the ravens 
about London, feed ujion the carrion and nastiness that is thrown without the city 
of Cairo, in Egypt. In Lev. racham is placed between kaat the pelican and 
rhdsidah the stork, and in Deut. rachama between kaat the pelican and shelach the 
cataract, which positions would incline one to think it meant some kind of water 
fowl. But, however this be, this bird seems to be denominated from its remarkable 
tender affection to its young. Com. Ps. ciii. 13, Isa. Ixiii. 13, 1 King's iii., 26." 
— P. Order Accipitres, Cuv. 

17. HTCn (chasidah) stork v. 19 ; T. O. . Knmn (chavarita) S. J. T. , ciguena ( Ardea 
ciconia Lmn.) G. T., and M., storch ; B., ciconia. '• A bird exhibiting special com- 
passion towards its young, {clicml means mercy or compassion] ciconia." — F. 
"We learn from Scripture that it isa periodical bird, or bird of passage, (,Ter. viii 7) 
that it has large wings (Zech. v. 9) and that it rests in baushini fir or cedar trees 
(Ps. civ. 17). All these circumstances agree to the stork which appears to have 
had the name chasidah from its remarkable affectioii to its young, and from its kind- 
ness or piety in tending and feeding its parents when grown old [the same deriva- 
tion is given, in nearly the same words, by Rashi. See his comment.] I am awar* 
that by some, this latter fact is treated as a fable, but I must confess when I find 
it asserted by a whole cloud of Roman and Greek writers, who had abuiulant oppor- 
tunity to asceitj in the truth or falsehood of it, and especially by Aristotle and Pliny, 
and that among the Greeks in paiticular, it passed into a kind of proverb in their 
application of tlie V. antipdaryein and of the names antipdargia and antipdargesi* 
for requiting ones parents, and in their calling laws enforcing this i\u\y pdargikoi 
fiomoi— on these authorities, I say, I cannot help giving credit to the fad just men- 
tioned. * • * Chasidah cannot mean ihe /ieron for the common heron is not a 
bird of passage. It has, however, so great a resemblance to the stork that it is 
ranged by naturalists under the same genus. * * * They will feed upon frogs, 
caref '.Uy selecting the toads, which they will not touch." — P. But for its extreme 
length we would produce the whole of Parkhurst's learned and interesting artich 
— we reiMMiniifinJ liic uru,"ULiun oi liiO rritiCai rcuvi- r to il. aVmCH i^/.tu .juyo iiiUi i; 
appears at regular periodical intervals, as it is written .Ter. viii. 7. " Yea, the stork 
in the heavens knowoth her appointed times, &c." " So punctual are they in their 





oomings and goings, that, from the most remote times they have been considered aj 
gifted with reasoning powers. • • The coming of the storks was the period of 
another Persian festival, arir.ouncing their joy at the departure of winter. The ex- 
pression ' the storks in the heavens' is more applicable than at first appears, for 
even when out of sight, its path may be traced by the loud and piercing cries peculiar 
to those of the new is well as of the old world. • • Besides the Jews, other 
nations held this bird in veneration."— Pict. Illus. Bib. " Their gizzard is slightly 
inuacular and their two coeea so small as to be barely perceptible. Order Grallce," 
— Cuv. 

18. ks:k (anafah) heron ; T. O., 13K (eboo) S. J. T. , ensanadera; Cass, de R. and 
Serr., cuervo marino ; G. T. and M., reiher ; B., milvus (kite). " According to the 
Talmudic doctors, the angry dayah or vulture, the root being anaf to be angry."— F. 
" In Latin ^rcfeaof arico to burn, chiefly because she is an angry creature.'' Crit. 
Sac. " Heron, so named from its angry disposition, as the stork is called chnsidah 
from its kindness. Bochart, vol. iii. 337, takes anafah for a kind of eagle or hawk, 
but if this were the true m.Miing of the wonl, I think it would have been reckoned 
with one or the other of those species in the preceding verses." — P. " As in 
Cholin the angry Dayah; to me it appears to be the heron."— R. "Ana/ah be- 
cause it becomes quickly incensed."— Ab. Ez. " Their stomach is a very 
large sac, but slightly muscular, aud they have only one minute coecum. Order 
Grallce, Cuv. 

19. na-an (doochifhaf) lapwing ; T. O.. ktiu ih (nagar toora, " cock of the moun- 
tains." Elias in Methiirgaman observes ihat it is called in German an awrhane. D. 
L.) S. J. T., gallo montes , Serr. and de R., aborilla ; G. T., miedehopf j B. upupa 
picus " According to another opinion it is derived from duch (gallus) and kefa 
(inons)."— F. " Rab. Sherira the Gaon, explains it also, to mean tarnegol habar 
(wood cock). " The lapwing is so ca'led of the double combe that it hath, Gallus 
tylveslris aut Gallina sylvestria."—Cn Sac. " The upupa, hoopoe, or hoop a very 
beautiful, but most unclean and filthy species of bird which is, however, sometimes 
eaten. So the lxx, Epoph, and Vulgate Upupa. (See Boch. v. iii. Brookes Nat. 
Hist. V. ii. p. 123.) It may have its Hebrew name .s it plainly has its Latin and 
English one, from the noise or cry it makes."—?. ■' Wood-cock, its comb is double 
in French hupe, called nagar toora, because of its acts, as oui sages explain in 
Masechet Gittin (p. 63)."— R. " The Sadduces say this is the cock, but they are 
the fools of the world [most irrational,] for who told them 1 [since they reject tradi- 
tionary teachings.]"- Ab. Ez. Lapwing Order Gralte, Cuv. 

20. t)>,nv (ngataleO bat ; T. ()., Hrh\S3 (ngatalepha) S. J. T , morciegalo; G. T., 
■chwalbe, B., vespertilio. <' According to Aben Ezra, a small birH flying at night,' 
derived according to Kimchi,from ngatal (darkness) and ngef (to fly. This, how- 
eTer, does not seem a proper explanation to me. I consider it to be a leptile which 
is like a mouse (bat) thus we find in Isaiah it is joined t hefor perot (ch. ii. v. 20). 
( Ang. Vers, moles,) its root ngatalef, as in Latin talpa ; if so the ngain becomes para- 
gogic, whence is derivable the bird's name which is like it."— F. " The winged 
mouse which flies at night."— K. " Vespertilio quoB in caligine volilat, et iuterdiu 
•evelat."— Cnt.Sac. "Perhaps from ngat to fly and ngalaf obscurity. A bat, 
which flies abroad only in the dusk of the evening and in the night, according to 
Ovid, Metam. lib. iv. fab. 10, lin. 415. Nocte volant, seroque trahunt, 

A vpspere nom^n' '* P. "R r>nv:.'? FT-lm-K-i -.^^-li..,. ti...* :; iU~ .. : ; 

that flies at nights. If so, we find that the sacred book commences its enumeration 
with the king among birds, viz : the eagle, and finishes with that which is intermediate 



between a bird and a reptile"— W. Cuvier places the bata among the Carnaria, the 
third order of Mammalia. 

Of/yin? reptiles (sherets hangoO we have mentioned 1. naiK (arbeh) rendered by 
the Anglican version, locust; 2. dv"?d (solngam) bald locust; 3. "jj-in (chargole) 
beetle ; 4. am (chagab) grasshopper. This first is translated locuit, but 
the other three are left untranslated by the Spanish Jewish Translators, Caa- 
•iodoro de Reyna, most of the German translators and Mendelssohn. They are 
rendered by Buxtorf, respectively, locusta; species attelabum; cantharus; and locusta; 
by Furst, locusta ; species locuatoe a voiacitate nominatcE ; genus locustoe, a saliendo, 
&c.; locusta gregaria. According to Kimchi, 1. locust; 2, one of the species of 
locusts, the ]^v/•\ rashon (bald locust) of our sages [see Choi. fol. 65 a, and Vayikra 
Rabba, sec. 14] it has a bald forehead, no tail, but elongated head. 3. Species of 
locust ; 4, the same. Parkhurst thus renders them, with the following remarks : 1 , 
a locust ; some place the word under this root, (arab) to lie in wait, because these 
insects suddenly and unexpectedly come forth upon countries as from lurking placet 
plundering and destroying, &c., 2. from salang to cut, &c., a kind of locust, prob- 
ably so called from its rugged craggy form as represented in Scheuchzer's Physica 
Sacra tab. cci, fig. 1 which see, &c., 3. a kimi of locust ; it appears to be derived from 
eharag, to shake, and rcgel, the foot, and so to denote the nimbleness of its niotiona. 
Thus, in English we call an animal of the locust kind, a grasshopper, the French 
name of which is likewise sautcrclle from the V. tauter to leap. 4. • • I should 
rather think that chagab denotes the cueuUated spicies of locust, so denominated by 
naturalists from the cucullus, cowl or hood with which they are naturally furnished, 
and which serves to distinguish them from the other birds, J;c." P. The Arabs eat 
them in a fried state with salt and butter ; and the writer of this has seen several 
Jews from Barbary eat the locust with much apparent gusto in the city of London, 
evidently considering it a great luxury, and themselves, much favored in 
being able to procure these native delicacies where the public taste has not yet 
called for them, though it requires, in abundance, creatures of most loathsome 
appearance and character, which it cannot, injustice, be said, the locusts present, 
The locusts are classed by Cuvier among the Insecta, 2nd family of the Orthoptera, 
viz : the Saltatoria. 

With respect to reptiles, it will be seen from an examination of the word pw 
(sherets; on page 52, to which the reader is referred, that in Hebrew this word 
baa a much wider acceptation than in English, and includes things moving swiftly 
in the waters, as swimming fishes, or on the earth, as weazels, mice, &c. Thia 
premised, the scriptural classification will be better appreciated. 

1. -i'?n (choled) weasel v. 29, T. O., m'jin (choolda,) S. J. T., comadreja, (mus- 
tela vulgaris, Linn.) G. T. and M., wiesel ; B., mustela ; F., talpa, called so in the 
Talmud, because of its digging or scooping; we find "the Eternal hollowed for 
them (machlid) the earth."— F. K. mustela, " The weasel is called in Hebrew 
eholed, of chcled time, not because it liveth long as oleaster, but because it soon 
waxeth old and so giveth way to time." — Grit. Sac. " It seems to have its Hebrew 
name from its insidious creeping manner."— P. " Order Carnaria (being very 
sanguinary, and living almost entirely upon flesh.) The true weasels are the most 
sanguinary of any" — Cuv. 

-.. /_ __ -L v.£r~> *^ 

M., maus; B. and f., mus. " Harmer shows that in latter days mice have been 
sometimes most destructive, to Palestine in particular"— P. Order Rodentia, Cut. 



3. 2-i (tsab) tortoise ; T. O., k3v (tsaba) S. J. T., sapo; G. T.,krote (toad,) M., 
■ehildkrote ; B. testudo ; " Biifo, 4 tumescendo, testudo,"— Crit. Sac. " The toad, 
from Yi'is swelling; (the root means to sweil) or rather because there seems no occa- 
•ion to forbid eating the toad, llie /oWoise, from the turjjid form of his shell"— P. 
" R. Eliau Bachur translates it schilil/rotc identical with aihilJkrole"—'W. 
" verdier, aj)proaching the frog'', R.—Reptilia— Order Chelonia, Cuv. 

4. Kn:K (anakah) ferret, v. 30, T. O., Kb- (yala) S. J. T., erizo (hedgehoj;) O. T. 
and M., igel ; F., stellio, a sono. " So called perhaps irom its continued cry" — K. 
" A kind of lizard or newt, so called from its moan or doleful cry"— P, herisson 
•ccording to Rashi. Cuvier places the lizards among the Reptilia, second family of 
the Saurians. The lizards are distinguished by their torked tongue, &c. Those 
called the monitors frequent the vicinity of the haunts of crocodiles and alligators, it 
is said that they give warning, by a whistling sound, of the approach of these danger- 
ous reptiles, and hence prubably their names of suuvesurde and monitor" — Cuv. 
This is certainly intimated in thj Hebrew name. 

5. na (koach) chameleon ; T. 0., Kma (kocha) S. J. T., lagartija; G. T., molch 
(salamander) B., lacerta, " genus lacerta.', non a robore iiominatum, sed ab humara 
vel sputo quod emittit"— F. " R. Yonah writes that it is called hardon, it is a 
species of the av (Isub.) and R. Solomon writes that in the vernacular it is called 
lizard." — K. " A species of lizard well known in the east, and called by the Arabs 
alwarlo, or, corrupledly from them, wiirraloTpunril, and so remarkable for its vigor 
in destroying serpents and dhahs, (another species of the lizards) that the Arabs 
have many proverbs taken from these its qualities, &c."— P. " Rashi, Onkelos and 
Jonathan Ben Uziel and Mendelssohn do not translate this word at all; but it 
appears to me to be identical with the Arabic gi/aril known for its great strength." 
— W. Cuvier places the chameleons among the Reptilia, 5th family of the Saurians. 

6. riHvh (letaah) lizard, T.O., nxub (letaah.) S. J. T., caracol (snail) G.T., eider; 
B. stellio, lacertas, " lacerta- species, sic dicta quod terrcc adhaereat (i)" — F. " A 
epecies of ;;oiso)io«s lizard called in Arabic waehru, and remarkable for adhering 
closely to the ground. Vulg, stellio, a newt, which may confirm the interpretation 
here given" — P. " The lacerta gecko is a species of lizard I'ound in countries bor- 
dering on the Mediteranean, it is of a reddish grey, spotted with brown. It is thought 
at Cairo to poison the victuals over which it passes, and especially salt provisions, 
of which it is very fond. It has a voice resembling somewhat that of a frog, which 
is intimated by the Hebre name, importing a sigh or a groan." Pict. lUus. Bib. — R. 
Lizard. Reptilia, 2nd family of Saurians, Cuv. 

7. urjn (olioniet) snail, T. 0., NU'iin (choomta) S. J. T., babosa (limax, Lmn,) 
G. T. and M., blindschleich (slow worm or snail) B., limax ; F., limax ut plurimi 
Tertunt. " Lacerta, secundum divum Hieron. vel limax. Testudo, cochlea terrea- 
tris secundum R. David." — Crit Sac. " A kind ol lizard. In Chaldee the V. signi- 
fies to bow down, depress, postrate ; and the animal might be called by this name 
from its being (by reas-on of the shortness of its legs) always prostrate, as it were. In 
Josh. XV. 5-1, we lia\ e Chamta, the name of a town in Canaan, periiaps so called 
rom the emblematic reptile there worshipped, Comp. Ueut iv, S" — P, " limace" — 
R. MoUusca, Gasteiopoda Pulmonea, Cuv. 

8. n:3a':n (linshemet) mole ; T. O., Kmi:-K (ashota) S. J. T., topo, (tulpa, Linn.) 
G.T. and iNL, maulwurf, B. and F., and K., talpa. " Root means to breathe as a N., a 
species ol animal enumerated among the lizards, iiie learned Bochart hath plainly 
proved that it was no other than the chameleon, an animal of the lizard kind, fur- 
aiahed with lungs remarkably large, and so observable for its manner oi breathing 



or perpetually Rasping as it were for breath, that the ancients feigned it to live only 
on the air. Thus Ovid, Met. lib, xv, fab. iv, lin. 411. ' Id quoque quod ventiM 
animal nutrilur et aura.' (The creature nourislud by the wind and air)"— P. Thii 
applies equally to the mole, since " while employed throwing up thos. little domea 
which are called mole hills, he is said to pant and blow as if overcome with the 
exertion"— Pict. Illus. Bib. Yet the context would show that he is right in placing 
the tinshcmet among the lizard species. Cuvier places the mole among the Car- 
naria of Mammalia. 

From the foregoing analysis, we may consider the following as legiti- 
mate deductions. First, as regards beasts, we find that even such of 
them as approximate so closely to those which ruminate and divide the 
hoof, that the most able of modern naturalists have been in doubt as to 
their classification (e. g. the camel, see p. 61) are pronounced, as of the 
prohibited species by the text, which rigidly and unqualifiedly demands 
the two requisites mentioned. We further find, that by this requirement 
the law selects as the proper food of the Hebrews, those beasts vMch 
possess the most perfect digestive apparatus, and whose flesh, therefore, 
would be, according to principles laid down by eminent scientific authori- 
ties, of the most healthy description. By this dictum, also, the lawr 
includes as permitted, that large and most valuable class of domestic 
animals (the Ruminaritia) which best minister to the dietary and other 
wants of men. As a further consequence we find that the remaining 
order of animals, which present, almost without exception, a catalogue 
of wild, carnivorous, rapacious, sanguinary and, but for their skins, 
chiefly useless, animals, whose digestive apparatus is of a plainer and leas 
perfect character, and who possess, for the most part, a single stomach and 
claws to tear their prey, — that such form the prohibited class. And 
with respect to birds we find further that quite an identity exists in their 
chararacter, both with the permitted and prohibited ; for the examination 
we have made shows us, that although there be some diflerence of opinion 
among Hebrew authorities themselves, respecting the enumerated 
species,' yet do they all agree, as do Christian critics, in referring an 
overwhelming proportio:i of them to the Accipitres or Raptorcs, which 
are birds of prey. Now, while these, like the beasts of prev, possess a 
less perfect digestive apparatus than that of the permitted birds, which 
include chiefly, though not exclusively, that valuable class known as the 
domestic, — theirs, as we have before shown, is of a more complicated 
and perfect character, establishing thus the referred to analogy in so far as 
concerns digestion, and, perhaps, the nature of their fiesh. It is further 
established by the text objecting to those wild, carnivorous, rapacious and 
Banguinaiv birds nossessine, like the prohibited beast.!, a single Btomach 

The number of species of birds known to naturalists b about 5000. 



and claws to tear their prey. And it is further established in that 
there are instances of doubtful species among the enumerated birds, 
(e. g. the raven) just as there are among the enumerated beasts, which 
are, however, determined by the sacred text.* This premised, w« 
may proceed to the consideration of the third point of inquiry, viz., 
the prohibition of the clean and unclean animals having reference to 
authority and reason. 

Ab with the prohibition of blood, Hebrew authorities have 
assigned both religious or moral, and hygienic, reasons for the 
institution of such law ; and as in the former case, we shall select 
the most valued of these authorities, and present them in an English 
dress to the reader, in conjunction with the illustrations afforded by 
other authors. We regard that most valuable ami interesting — we 
believe, now very scarce, Spanish Jewish work. Las Excel encias delos 
Hebreos, as containing the most comprehensive digest of Jewish opinion 
on the matter. From it, therefore, shall we prefer to translate, com- 
mencing at the third division, (Terccra Excelenda; Separados de todas 
las nacioncs) at the 39th page. 

"Three opinions are offered respecting this prohibition. The first is, 
that all the meats condemned by the law afford an objectionable and im- 
proper nourishment, deteriorating from the health and good temperament 
of the body, and embarassing the devotion of the soul. In this way 
speaks the great R. Moses, of Egypt (Maimonides, Mor. Neb. c. 3) 
when discoursing concerning he reasons of the precepts, referring, 
among other matters, to the swine, which he says is of a very humid 
nature, and that the principal cause of its prohibition is its extreme 
filthiness, — that had it been permitted to become a staple article of food, 
[its evil- .'ould have predominated over its advantages] for the streets 
and habitations would become as filthy as so many dirt receptacles, 
(muladares) as we find is the case with those uncleanly cities where 
the injurious practice of permitting these animals to congregate in 
public places [to collect their noisome food] obtains. [Could our 
author have seen some of the poorer Irish neighbouriioods and cabins, 
as we have seen them, both in Britain and America, presenting so 
many revolting sties where man and hog assist each other to engender 
and diffuse fever and pestilence, he would have found powerful and 
fearful testimony to the truth of the idea of which he writes.] The 
fat of the swine is, in itself, sufficient to impede the circulation, [and, 
we take leave to add, is one of the chief reasons why such fearfully 
vast quantities of intoxicatmg liquors are consumed in those countries 

♦ See commentary of Abarbanel quoted on p. 64.